"Asia and Africa today"
- is a scientificl monthly journal (in Russian)
of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Included in Russian Science Citation Index on
WoS platform, and EBSCO Publishing.
ISSN 0321-5075
Published since July 1957.

 

 "Asia and Africa today" № 2 2020 Contents

 

 

Aia 2 2020

 

 TOP PROBLEM 

“SOCHI CONSENSUS”

DOI: 10.31857/S032150750008466-4

Evgeny N. KORENDYASOV, PhD (Economics), Leading Research Fellow, Centre for the Study of the Russian-African Relations and African States' Foreign Policy, Institute for African Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )

Resumé. Les 24-25 octobre 2019 à Sotcha s’est tenu le premier sommet russo-africain. L’auteur de l’article se propose de faire un bilan des travau de c eforum extraordinaire dans les relations russo-africaines. Une attention particulière est accordée à l’analyse des tenants et aboutissants du “retour de la Russie en Afrique” et de son impact sur le rapprochement et l’interaction de deux partenaires aussi bien dans les domaines de coopération économique que dans la politique internationale.

    Certaines suggestions sont formulées concernant les voies à emprunter afin de surmonter les empèchements relatifs aux bases de départ modestes et à la concurrence internationale et d’assurer une percée importande du retour de la Russie en Afrique.

    Sont analysées dans ce contexte les possibilités de s’appuyer sur les industries à haute téchnologies afin d’assurer un impact significatif sur les processus de transformation en cours dans les économies de deux partenaires.

Mots-clés: Afrique, Russie, coopération, partenariat, interaction, investissements, échanges commerciaux, regulation globale, terrorisme, sécurité

 

POLITICS, ECONOMICS

THE IDEOLOGY OF ISLAMIC CULTURAL REFORMATION (by the example of Hassan Hanafi)

DOI: 10.31857/S032150750008467-5

Matem M. AL-JANABI, Dr.Sc. (Philosophy), Professor, Department of History of Philosophy, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, People's Friendship University ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )

Abstarct. The main purpose of this article is to determine the features and specificity of one of the major models or patterns in the modern Islamic political idea. This is intended to mean the updated or new form of the old Islamic historical pattern crystallized by rational traditions in theology and philosophy. It is the cultural pattern of the Islamic political idea, which seeks to establish the theoretical and practical political idea based on the rational traditions of Islamic culture, especially the traditions of Mu'tazila and Muslim philosophers.

    Hassan Hanafi is one of the most representative figures of this style. It is to him also belong the attempt to establish the so-called ideology of the Islamic left. This, in turn, was not isolated from the political and ideological impact of the Islamic Revolution in Iran in the 1970s. Hassan Hanafi has sought, through his research and books, which he collected in the eighties of the twentieth century and printed them in a set of volumes, perhaps the most important of them is the book (Religion and Revolution in Egypt) with eight volumes, and the book (From Creed to the Revolution) with five volumes.

    In addition to his theoretical attempts by drawing on the fundamentals of the Islamic religion (Mu'tazili in particular) to lay the foundations of pure Islamic political thought. Hence, it placed it on the basis of cultural and rational "Islamization". Therefore, complete liberation from the influence of Western traditions in this regard. He continued this mission in his attempt to establish what he called "the science of Occidentalism", which calls for criticizing the West, especially its cultural impact, as the best way to build political traditions on the one hand, and awareness of cultural self on the other.

Keywords: Islam, Islamic political idea, Islamic reform, cultural Islam, left-wing Islam, Hasan Hanafi

 

INNER MONGOLIA AS CHINA’S ENERGETIC FRONTIER

10.31857/S032150750008469-7

Victoria O. NAMZHILOVA, PhD (Economics), Research Fellow, Buryatia Scientific Centre, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )

Abstract. This article presents a study on the development of the basic industry of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region economy. The author notes the growing role of the IMAR energy complex for providing energy to drivers of the Chinese economy: the Yangtze and Pearl River Deltas, as well as the Jing-Jin-Ji region. While Chinese national environmental policy has been tightening, key trends in the development of the region’s main energy resources have been identified.

    Decarbonization of the national economy will certainly affect the supply of coal by Inner Mongolia. However, decreasing in the coal demand in eastern regions will be offset by the growing demands of industrial production in the provinces of Central China. The further development of the coal-chemical industry, as well as the conversion of coal into liquid fuel and gas, will also influence the distribution structure of coal. The dynamics and prospects of the power generation, including the supply of excess electricity to nearby and remote provinces, are analyzed.

    The article particularly notes the role of IMAR energy complex for the economy of neighboring Mongolia. Priorities for the development of renewable energy sources and prospects of gas production are considered. The cross-border factor of the IMAR also plays a role in transformation of the energy landscape in northern China. On the one hand, there is an increasing purchase of Mongolian coal for the needs of the steel industry of Inner Mongolia, and on the other hand, an uncontested supply of Chinese electricity for mining enterprises in southern Mongolia.

Keywords: Inner Mongolia, IMAR energy sector, coal industry, electricity supply, wind energy, gas production

 

JAPANESE: PORTRAIT ON THE STARTING POINT OF A NEW ERA

DOI: 10.31857/S032150750008470-9

Larisa V. ZHILINA, PhD (History), Associate Professor, Foreign Languages Chair, F.M.Dostoevsky Omsk State University ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )

Abstract. Value orientations and attitudes are central components of people’s belief systems. They also play a central role in explaining political behavior, notably as intermediate variables between social structure and political behavior. The present article, based on a series of surveys carried out by NHK opinion pools and other researches, analyzes how the Japanese value orientations and attitudes regarding society, politics and daily lives changed in generations change over the surveys in the last 45 years.

    Many of these changes in views of Japanese people reflect the emergence of attitudes and behavior patterns long familiar in the West - but new to Japan. Perhaps the most significant of the changes confronting Japan is the transformation of the status of women, because it affects so many different aspects of Japanese life. The current changes in public opinion on role of women in society can be viewed as a logical result of Japanese government’s policy in human resources. But although Japanese people’s perceptions of gender relationships have changed markedly in the 45 years the degree of change has been diminishing since the 2000s. As for Japanese public attitudes towards migrants (foreigners) - it requires understanding the real concerns, emotions and values around which these attitudes are formed.

    In general, surveys show Japanese society in which women are playing a greater role, and people are happier than they've ever been. In this way, we can see how generational shifts and differences affect the overall variations in value orientation.

Keywords: Japanese, public opinion, value orientations, attitudes, changes

 

DEVELOPMENT OF ARAB GULF MONARCHIES: BREAKOUT TO FUTURE

DOI: 10.31857/S032150750008471-0

Elena S. MELKUMYAN, Dr.Sc. (Political Science), Professor, Oriental Studies Department, Russian State University of the Humanities; Leading Research Fellow, Institute of Oriental Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )

Abstract. The article is analyzing perspective plans of Arab Gulf States with the aim to understand which future they are going to construct and which ways they are using to implement it. The author describes the differences in the social-economic development of these countries and connected with them how ambitious tasks they are going to accomplish. The author summarized common objectives of all Gulf States plans as achievement of prosperity, reformation of economy and social goals of development which achievement will transform their societies. The development of human capital is considering as a base for realization of the tasks, which were proclaimed.

    The Arab States of the Gulf, which include a group of oil-producing countries united by long-standing historical ties, the similarity of political systems and affiliation with the Arab-Muslim civilization, have developed programs for their long-term development. In the course of their evolution, these states went through several stages of modernization, having achieved significant successes in developing the economy and creating a socially-oriented model of society, in which the state provides its citizens with free education, medical care and social assistance.

    Currently, the Gulf countries are experiencing an important stage in their development, the stage of understanding the tasks that need to be solved in order to become advanced, modern states with sustainable economic growth and occupying a worthy place in world politics in the future.

Keywords: Arab monarchies, Gulf region, prosperity, sustainable economic development, education, diversification

 

SINGAPORE: STATE SUPPORT FOR SMALL AND MEDIUM BUSINESSF

DOI: 10.31857/S032150750008472-1

Viсtoria V. ZABOLOTSKAYA, PhD (Economics), Associate Professor, Doctoral candidate, St. Petersburg State University; Associate Professor, Kuban State University ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )

Abstract. The review article analyzes the features of state financial support for innovative activities of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Singapore at the present stage. Author gives a comparative analysis of the effectiveness of its state institutions, programs and forms of financial support.

    The modern system of governmental financial support for SMEs in Singapore is flexible and capable the effectively resist financial crises and changes global market conditions. It ensured a rapid growth of SMEs in priority spheres of the economy, making this sector the basis of the innovation economies of Singapore. The development of favorable conditions for financing SMEs by attracting private foreign capital, introducing new digital, computer and info-communication technologies, enabled this country to increase labor productivity in this sector and become one of the leaders of the world market of innovations.

    In Russia, the experience of Singapore can be used to improve the mechanisms for integrating academic and university science with public and private commercial industrial partners in order to accelerate the commercialization of scientific research. Forms of financing youth small enterprises, technological and innovative start-ups, venture accelerators and business incubators can be adapted in Russian practice with taking into account its national features. These measures will allow to qualitatively increase the level of state interaction in the sphere of education and science with the business sector, solve the significant tasks of improving higher education of qualified specialists and accelerating the process of commercialization of scientific development in Russia.

    The experience of Singapore can be also useful in developing international cooperation in the sphere of innovations, attracting foreign investors and talented highly qualified specialists, and introducing new technologies, goods and services to the world marke

Keywords: Singapore government institutes, small and medium-sized enterprises, start-ups, financial support, innovation activities, Russia

 

AFRICA AND SPACE

DOI: 10.31857/S032150750008473-2

Salavat G. AZERBAYEV, PhD (History), Professor, Kazakh Ablai Khan University  of International Relations and World Languages ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )

Abstract. The author pays attention to the study of the modern achievements of African countries in the space sphere, having also conducted a brief historical analysis on this issue, and studied the features of formation, as well as the possibilities and prospects of African countries in this area at the present stage.

    The author also argues that scarce economic capacities of African countries stop them from developing their space activities and achievements to another stage. However, recent years mark notable developments in that sphere for several African countries, including most active South Africa and Nigeria, and also Algeria, Morocco, Egypt, Tunisia, and even Angola, Gabon, Ghana, Zimbabwe, Libya, Ethiopia, Sudan, Kenya as well. Majority of mentioned countries develop their space activities projects in the sphere of space navigation and telecommunication systems.

    Critiques of space projects development state that this is not as of high priority due to plenty of other areas and spheres in African countries necessary to be financially supported and urgently developed, but experts reply with the fact that innovational development changes life of African people to the new level and even makes it much better, and easier.

    In the article, the author concludes that space research and activities in Africa are becoming more popular and that African countries involved in the development of space research are being on the right track. If the pace taken in this matter continues to develop, then in the near future other countries of the continent will also join this activity, which will also favorably affect other areas of development for the states of the region.

Keywords: space, Africa, space program, African Space Network, space agency

 

POST-GRADUATE TRIBUNE

CHINA AND THE "EASTERN VECTOR" OF RUSSIAN ARCTIC POLICY

DOI: 10.31857/S032150750008474-3

Eduard Z. GALIMULLIN, Post-graduate student (Political Science), Russian Presidential Academy of National Economic and Public Administration ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )

Abstract. Due to continuous economic growth over several decades, China is becoming increasingly integrated into the system of international relations. Today, China is one of the leading economies, which functioning requires a huge amount of resources. This fact is a factor that causes interest in the riches of the Arctic. The paper describes China’s Arctic ambitions, explains the what are they based on and briefly analyze the White paper - country’s strategy for the Arctic region, where for the first time the priorities of the state policy in the region are officially stated.

    The overall picture of Russia’s Arctic policy with its main objectives and challenges is also presented. It argues that Sino-Russian partnership became possible mostly due to imposed sanctions and aims to compensate decreasing Western investment. This cooperation partly contributes to the solution of some problems, but still China is able to "replace" European and American partners only in terms of investments - China does not have the technologies necessary for Arctic offshore drilling, and it is unknown whether they will appear in the near future. Considering China’s economic prevalence and emerging geopolitical interests author argued that Russian government, as well as any other littoral Arctic state, should be careful while using Chinese investment.

    The Russian-Chinese partnership, being an alternative to cooperation with Western countries in some respects, is obviously unequal, and, therefore, should be supported solely based on Russian national interests and existing international norms and institutions in relation to the Arctic.

Keywords: Arctic, China, Russia, international relations, sanction

 

TURKISH-AMERICAN RELATIONS (2009-2019)

DOI: 10.31857/S032150750008475-4

Aminet A. BGUASHEVA, Post-graduate student, Department of General history, Adygea State University ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )

Abstract. The article attempts to analyze the main vectors of development of US-Turkish cooperation from 2009 to 2019. The US foreign policy concept since 2009 was aimed at smoothing the “sharp corners” in the development of contacts with countries of the Middle East region and Turkey, in particular. By the beginning of B.Obama’s reign, US-Turkish relations showed a decrease in mutual trust in connection with the consequences of the Iraq crisis in 2003. At present, the relationship between Washington and Ankara can be described as a “systemic crisis”, which implies the existence of serious disagreements on issues of bilateral contacts.               Regarding the strategic situation in the Middle East region at present, in particular, the destabilization of countries due to the “Arab spring”, problems in Iraq, and the consequences of the destructive civil war in Syria are a kind of test of the strength of the allied ties of the United States and Turkey.

    At the beginning of 2017, the new administration of D.Trump came to power in the United States, “raising the degree” of the differences between Washington and Ankara. The United States was not happy to the growing interaction of Ankara with Russia and Iran in Syria, to Turkish-Russian agreements on the purchase of an S-400 missile defense system. In this regard, many congressmen on Capitol Hill called on D.Trump to impose sanctions on Turkey.               Thus, the Americans once again decided to put Turkey in a “tight framework” of the need to demonstrate their devotion to the United States and to the interests of the North Atlantic Alliance. Depending on how the D.Trump administration can overcome bilateral differences in methods and approaches in various foreign policy areas, the future development of a constructive dialogue between Washington and Ankara will depend.

Keywords: foreign policy, Turkey, US, European Union, “model partnership” 

 

 TRADITIONS, MORALS, CUSTOMS

THE HISTORY OF KUSAKOKOR (Ghana): FROM AVATIME TRADITION TO MODERN PRACTICE XXI

DOI: 10.31857/S032150750008476-5

Alina O. LAPUSHKINA, Junior Research Fellow, Institute for African Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences; Junior Research Fellow, International Center of Anthropology, National Research University Higher School of Economic; Junior Research Fellow, Russian State University for the Humanities ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )

Abstract. The article is about the history of Avatime people rites of passage, which accompanied girls’ adolescence and symbolized the transition from childhood to adulthood in Avatime culture (Ghana). The full Kusakokor rite cycle (“the given cloth”) is recorded for the first time. Long ago the Avatime were looking for their place to stay through battles before leading a sedentary, peaceful lifestyle. That is why nowadays informants do not exclude the borrowing of the female rite while were living next door to other peoples on their way in the past. Unlike the male rite,

    Kusakokor is practiced today. By the way, both the external form and the internal content are different from the oral tradition, which continues to be passed from mouth to mouth of the elders and Queen-Mothers. The paper deals with the changes in the rite and its functions that occur from the arrival of Europeans to this day (late XIX - XXI centuries). Traditionally, the rite Ablebe (“ripe pineapple”) was performed, but after the first Mission station was established in the 1870s a new model of the rite was suggested.

    Nowadays the number of different layers of clothes became a symbol of high status in society, but first “given cloth” was gifted by a missionary in order not to allow the Avatime girls to perform Ablebe naked, covered only with beads. The article is based on field materials collected during 8 years of working with respondents from the small people of Avatime and Ghana in general. The first expedition took place in 2011.

Keywords: Ghana, rites of passage, history , missionaries, social memory, XXI century

 

BOOK REVIEW

«EACH ERA HAS ITS OWN VIEW»

DOI: 10.31857/S032150750008477-6

Natalia L. KRYLOVA, Dr.Sc. (History), Institute of African Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. )

Review of the book: Svetlana V. Prozhogina. Maghreb French-language short stories. Anthology (in the author's edition). Moscow, Institute of Oriental Studies RAS, 2019. 456 p., with annex) (In Russ.)

Keywords: Postcolonial Maghreb, Maghreb society, small prose, literary evidence, Maghreb writers, emigration, gender relations, emancipation

 

THE NEW WORK ABOUT AFRICAN HISTORY

DOI 10.31857/S032150750008478-7

Review of the book: A.L. Emelyanov. The pre-colonial history of Africa South of Sahara. (Moscow, MGIMO-University, 2019, 285 p.) (In Russ.)

Eleonora S. LVOVA, Dr.Sc. (History), Professor, Chair of Africanistic, Institute of Asian and African Studies, Moscow State University (iaas-msu@ mail.ru)

Keywords: history, Africa, pre-colonial period, historiography