"Asia and Africa today"
- is a scientificl monthly journal (in Russian)
of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Included in Russian Science Citation Index on
WoS platform, and EBSCO Publishing.
ISSN 0321-5075
Published since July 1957.

 

 "Asia and Africa today" № 9 2016

 

 

Azia&Afrika 09-2016

 

 Top Problem

«AFRICAN BUSINESS INITIATIVE» - A PRACTICAL STEP TOWARDS ACTIVE COOPERATION OF RUSSIA AND AFRICA by I.O.Abramova, Dr.Sc. (Economics) and L.L.Fituni, Dr.Sc. (Economics), Institute for African Studies, Russian Academy of sciences (RAS)
Keywords: Africa, Russia, Cooperation, African Business Initiative
The article is dedicated to the establishment of the African Business Initiative (ABI) by the Institute for African Studies in collaboration with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, represented by the Deputy Foreign Minister M.Bogdanov, members of the African diplomatic corps, the international law firm «SQUIRE Patton Boggs». The working Group of ABI includes also Russian companies which are already present on the African continent, or are planning to start their activities in Africa.
The main objective of the initiative is to develop such a strategy of Russian business cooperation with African partners, which will take into account the features of national legislation, economic potential, socio-cultural values and traditions. The Initiative involves the application of legal, regulatory and policy standards and best practices of international projects.

 

 Policy, Economy

ISLAM, ISLAMISM AND EXTREMISM

NORTH AFRICA AT GUNPOINT OF TERRORISM by N.A.Zherlitsina, PhD (History), Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: Maghreb, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Islamic extremism, threat of terrorism, security problems
The article deals with the situation in the sphere of security in the Maghreb countries - Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. The emergence of new and expansion of old seats of tension in the region, especially in Libya and the Sahel zone, creates favorable conditions for the growth of the activities of terrorist organizations. Algeria, as a regional leader, leads not only a fight against terrorism in North Africa but also the peace process in neighboring Libya.
Morocco which is implementing political and socio- economic reforms, has a stabilizing effect on the region, as well as is making efforts for distribution of values of moderate Islam in North Africa and in a zone of the African Sahel. Tunisia has the most vulnerable position caused by an economic crisis and by remaining sympathies of nearly a half of the population for parties of an Islamic orientation, by weakness of national army and intelligence agencies. Growth of jihadist threat demands association of anti-terrorist efforts as at regional, and world level.

 

RUSSIAN ENERGY EXPORTS TO JAPAN AND SOUTH KOREA by E.A.Borisova, PhD (History), Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS
Keywords: Japan, South Korea, hydrocarbons, Russian exports, LNG, oil
Due to complicated relations with European countries Russian oil and gas exports gradually began to shift from Western to Asian markets. China has become the main Russian partner at Asian-Pacific Region. However, a significant share of Russian hydrocarbon export also goes to Japan and South Korea.
The article examines the prospects for increasing supplies to these countries under the current unfavorable market conditions.

 

COTE-D’IVOIRE. METAMORPHOSES OF THE POWER by L.M.Sadovskaya, PhD (History), Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: Cote-d’Ivoire, elections, International penal court, L.Gbagbo
On 28th of January 2016 the International penal court in Hague started the process of a case L.Gbagbo, the ex-president of Cote-d’Ivoire. For the first time the head of a state appeared in the International penal court as a person prosecuted for the crime against humanity.
In this article the political landscape in Cote- d’Ivoire before and during the presidential elections in October 2015 is analyzed. The author of the article describes in details the attitude to this case of the supporters as well as the opponents of L.Gbagbo and African political elite, which is going to establish its own independent African penal court with the help of African Union.

 

ETHIOPIA: ETHNO-POLITICAL SITUATION IN GAMBELLA by R.N.Ismagilova, Dr.Sc. (History), Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: Ethiopia, Gambella, ethnic federalism, ethnicity, interethnic relations, conflicts
In accordance with the Constitution that came into force in August 1995, Ethiopia introduсed a new form of government - ethnic federalism. The country was divided into nine ethnically-based states. For the first time ever all ethnic groups obtained equal rights, including the rights to participate in government at all levels, to use their own languages, and to develop their traditional cultures. But ethno-political situation still remains difficult.
Ethnic factor continue to play a significant role in all spheres of life. Interethnic conflicts aggravate the political situation in the country. Some Oromo, Somali, Afar politicians continue to demand the creation independent states. The vast majority of the ethnic groups are greatly dissatisfied with the leading position of the Tigray, an excessive centralization of power and the dominant rule of the ruling Ethiopian.

 

REPUBLIC OF KOREA: TOWARDS CREATIVE ECONOMY by M.P.Kukla, PhD (Economics), Far Eastern Federal University
Keywords: Social and Economic policy, Republic of Korea, economic situation, creative economy, Paгk Geun Hye
The purpose of the article is to analyze the socio- economic policy of President Park Geun Hye. The internal and external challenges internal and external challenges to economic development of the Republic of Korea - aging population, youth unemployment, the imbalance in the production and social structure, the decline in export growth, increased competition in the global market - are shown.
The concept, goals, objectives and measures of socio- economic policy of the Government of the Republic of Korea are analyzed. The government seeks to bring higher costs in social welfare with structural reforms in the sphere of creative economy. Policy to establish a
«creative economy» is designed to solve the problem of finding new drivers of economic growth, as well as the revitalization of the domestic economic situation.

 

BRICS: ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF INDIA ENERGY SECURITY by M.O.Ryazanova, Post- graduate student, Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO-University)
Keywords: energy security, India, BRICS, planned development, national policy, joint ventures, infrastructural funding
The articles surveys strategic points of India’s energy policy and its energy security. The analysis of such official documents as Twelfth Five Year Plan, Integrated Energy Policy 2008, India Hydrocarbon Vision 2025 and National Action Plan on Climate Change determines key factors of national and foreign policy framework. They include foreign investment promotion, household electrification, alternative energy development, diversification of foreign sup- pliers etc.
In this context, enhancing of BRICS energy cooperation by means of joint ventures as well as resource trade promotion could positively contribute to the achievement of the goals. First steps in this direction are being brought out today and the results are notable even now.

 

CHINA AND INDIA: ASIAN VECTOR OF FOREIGN ECONOMIC RELATIONS OF SOUTH AFRICA by E.Ya.Arapova, PhD (Economics) and A.A.Mujumdar, student. Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO-University)
Keywords: China, India, South Africa, BRICS, foreign trade, foreign direct investments, economic cooperation
China and India are South Africa’s largest trade and investment partners in Asia. Successful cooperation within BRICS and implementation of multilateral initiatives contribute to stronger economic ties of the countries. In recent years, China has demonstrated strong African bias; India’s foreign economic policy also seems to be Africa-oriented. The paper gives detailed analysis of South Africa’s trade and investment cooperation with two “Asian giants” - China and India. The analysis is made from South Africa’s strategic interests, its interest in diversification of production and exports and more efficient integration into global value chains. The author reveals key trends and priorities of China and India in South Africa, and assesses mutual benefits of closer economic cooperation.

 

REGIONAL BANKS IN AFRICA: OPPOR- TUNITIES AND PROSPECTS by I.B.Matsenko, PhD (Economics), Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: Africa, financial development, regional banks, pan-African banks, mergers and acquisitions
On the African continent, new banks are created and the number of local banking groups with subsidiaries in several countries is increasing. These regional banking institutions (the so-called pan-African banks, by definition of the IMF experts) are expanding their presence on the continent, creating a cross-border network and absorbing other banks, foreign banks included, which traditionally dominated on the continent.
The new pan-African players stimulate the development of financial services and economic integration in Africa, contributing to unleashing the potential of the rapidly growing region. However, one should take into consideration that this relatively new process in the financial development of the African countries (such as, for example, microfinance and mobile banking - providing services via mobile communications) started from a low base and significant gap with other developing regions.

 

TRADE AND ECONOMIC POLICY OF THE EU IN THE MEDITERRANEAN: SUCCESSES AND FAILURES by L.D.Oganisyan, Post-graduate student, Moscow State University
Keywords: Arab spring, European Union, Mediterranean, free trade agreements
In the article the main aspects of EU policy in the Mediterranean are briefly described. Special attention is paid to the study of Brussels policy in the Mediterranean in the context of the Arab spring events in the Middle East and North Africa in 2011-2013. The main part is the analysis of EU trade and economic policy in the Mediterranean, especially Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreements (DCFTAs) offered by the European Union to four Arab countries (Morocco, Tunisia, Jordan and Egypt) in 2011. The main advantages and disadvantages of DCFTAs between the EU and the Arab states are investigated. Besides, foreign researchers opinions on the agreements are given in the article. Thus, the main purpose of the research is to consider the place and the role of DCFTAs in European Union’s policy in the Mediterranean.

 

 Scientific Life

CHINA: HOW TO BUILD A «XIAOKAN» SOCIETY by I.V.Vakhrushin, PhD (Economics) and I.G.Chubarov, PhD (Geography). Institute of Far Eastern Studies, RAS
Keywords: China, scientific conference, the Institute for Far Eastern Studies
The Institute of Far Eastern Studies hosted the annual scientific conference of the Center for Social and Economic Research of China under the general heading of «China in the new stage of economic reform.»
The participants outlined the main results of the economic and social development of China’s national economy in 2015, the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-2015).

 

 Foreign Expert Opinion

POLICY OF KAZAKHSTAN IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND THE KAZAKH-EGYPTIAN RELATIONS by S.G.Azerbaev, PhD (History), Kazakh Ablai Khan University of International Relations and World Languages (Almaty, Kazakhstan)
Keywords: Kazakhstan, Middle East, Egypt, foreign policy
The article gives a brief overview of the establishment and development of diplomatic, cultural and economic ties of independent Kazakhstan with the Middle East. Kazakhstan attitude towards the so-called «Arab spring», contacts with regional organizations and institutions in the Middle East are discussed.
Priority spheres of development of Kazakhstan’s relations with the region, among which are - economic and trade cooperation, contacts in the humanitarian sphere, technical assistance, investment policy, contact religious leaders and organizations, scientific- technical and cultural cooperation - are characterized. Particular attention is paid to the Kazakh-Egyptian relations.

 

 Post-Graduate Column

«NEW CHINESE» IN THE NEW CHINA: CHANGES IN MORALITY IN CHINA IN THE XXI CENTURY by S.Yu.Gorbacheva, University of International Business and Economics (Beijing)
Keywords: China, moral values, modernization, society, culture
For more than 30 years, China is following the path of «reform and openness». Although this policy is officially called the «path of success and prosperity of the Chinese nation», however, the country’s citizens have to pay off for great economic achievments with decline of the morals of society.
For centuries Confucian culture was preaching the idea of modesty and obedience. To day the modern educated youth thirst for material goods.

 

 History Pages

PARADES IN THE «HEAVEN» (China) by B.N.Gorbachev, Dr.Sc. (History), professor, JSC «Rosoboronexport»
Keywords: People's Republic of China, military forces, armament of PLA, Beijing, Tiananmen, military parade
The second part of the article is devoted to analysis of the parade in honor of the 70th anniversary of the victory in the Chinese People's War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression. The author emphasizes the political significance of the parade for the first time representatives of foreign armies. At the same time the Chinese leadership has sought to point to China's important role not only in the defeat of militarist Japan, and in the "World anti-fascist war." During the parade, China showed the country and the world the latest developments in China's defense modernization. Beijing has firmly stated that the old China and its army, which previously were unable without outside help to defeat the Japanese army, are in the past. "The history of Beijing's parades" lets you see how in a historically short period of time poor and backward China has become a world power with strong armed forces capable of protecting not only the security of their country, but also to influence the development of the world situation in general.

 

 Culture, Literature, Art

IMMIGRANT by A.Memmi, writer (Tunis) From the Editor-in-Chief, academician A.M.Vasiliev and S.V.Prozhogina, Dr.Sc. (Philo- logy), Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS
We publish (slightly abridged) the last excerpt from «Immigrant», one of the books by the French-speaking writer, Tunisian-born Albert Memmi; the final part will be published in the next issue.
A.Memmi is widely known in France, not only as a writer but also as a great scientist, philosopher, professor at the Sorbonne. Born in Tunisia in 1920 he is the author of well-known novels and journalistic portraits, translated in 20 countries into many languages.

 

* Summary