"Asia and Africa today"
- is a scientificl monthly journal (in Russian)
of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Included in Russian Science Citation Index on
WoS platform, and EBSCO Publishing.
ISSN 0321-5075
Published since July 1957.

 

 "Asia and Africa today" № 5 2016

 

 

Azia&Afrika 05-2016

 

CELEBRATING AFRICA DAY

CONTEMPORARY CONCLUSIONS FROM THE «AFRICAN LESSONS». What the historians of many countries are discussing and arguing about by A.B.Davidson, Academician, Russian Academy of Science (RAS)
Keywords: the collapse of colonialism, the formation of statehood, the history of Asian and African nations, national identity, Afrocentrism
Battle of scientists, journalists, representatives of the authorities, and in some times of the whole nations around the historical past is now going so fast and have become tougher than ever before. There are many reasons for this. One of the most important connected with the collapse of the colonial empires and that huge change which are occurring recent decades, especially in Asia and Africa, with the conversion of many former colonies into independent states, and strengthening of independence of those countries which quite recently by historical measures were dependent.
Another very important reason of course is the fact that Asians and Africans now make the vast majority of humanity.

 

 Top Problem

REGIONAL SECURITY

AFRICAN INITIATIVE TO COMBAT INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM by I.O.Abramova, Dr.Sc. (Economics), Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: Institute for African Studies, Morocco, «Marrakech security forum», international terrorism in Africa
February 12-13, 2016 Director of the Institute for African Studies, Dr. Sc. (Economics), Professor I.O.Abramova and Deputy Director, Dr. Sc. (Economics), Professor L.L.Fituni at the invitation of the Moroccan Center for Strategic research (ICSR) have visited the Kingdom of Morocco, where they have taken part in the 7-th International security forum «Marrakech security forum».
The main topic of scientific debate was the threat of international terrorism in Africa.

 

ISLAM, ISLAMISM AND EXTREMISM

ISLAMIC RADICALISM IN PAKISTAN: FACTORS, PHASES, CYCLES by V.Ya.Belokrenitsky, Dr.Sc. (History), Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS
Keywords: Islamization, Ahmadiya, Sunni-Shi’a conflicts, Kashmir, Afghanistan, belt of Pushtun tribes, war on terror, Karachi
The article deals with the phenomenon of Islamic radicalism in Pakistan. Among the issues discussed are the anti-Ahmadi movement, the Islamization of the Zia-ul-Haque era, the Sunni- Shiite clashes and the emergence and consolidation of militant and terrorist groups. External factors, primarily the war in Afghanistan, the Taliban rule there and the uprising in the Indian Kashmir valley, are taken into account.
The author divides the history of the contemporary Islamic Radicalism into four periods: 1977-1999; 1999-2006; 2006-2010, and
2010-2015. He concludes that while during the first and third phases the Radicalism experienced an upward trend, it was declining in between. This does not preclude the present downward phase from changing in the future due to a combination of internal and external factors.

 

 Policy, Economy

ENERGY: THE PRESENT AND THE FUTURE

RUSSIAN EXPORT OF OIL AND GAS TO CHINA by E.A.Borisova, PhD (History), Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS
Keywords: China, hydrocarbons, energy, Power of Siberia, ESPO, Russian exports
For the last few years, Russia has been actively expanding its trade and economic ties with China. Emphasis is placed on the export of Russian oil and gas. For access to the Chinese market Russian oil is successfully competing with the Gulf countries and Africa. As for the Russian gas, it has yet to break into the Chinese market. And this task is much more difficult than it seems.

THE AFRICAN FACTOR IN THE YEMEN CONFLICT by S.V.Kostelyanets, PhD (Political Science), Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, Morocco, Senegal, foreign intervention, civil war, international coalition
The growing tensions of the recent years in the Middle East and North Africa are accompanied by an unprecedented level of open military intervention of global and regional actors - as part of temporary international coalitions of different formats - in the internal conflicts that erupted in a number of countries of the region. This article discusses the parameters of African participation in Saudi Arabia-led military operations in Yemen. It aims at explaining the reasons that prompted Riyadh to seek partners for a coalition among the African states and the motives of the latter.

MULTIVARIATE TRANSPORT STRATEGY OF CHINA by S.L.Sazonov, PhD (Economics), K.A.Petrunko and U.Tzi (China), Post-graduate students, Institute for Far Eastern Studies, RAS
Keywords: China, Russia, ASEAN, «Silk Road Economic Belt», «21st Century Maritime Silk Road», railways, integration, Asian Infra- structure Investment Bank, Silk Road development Fund
The authors outline new Chinese projects - «Economic zone of the silk Road» and «Marine silk Road». The article contains comprehensive analysis of their internal content, including financial, economic, transport and investment components. The authors explore three routes of a Eurasian Highway PRC focused on Chinese silk projects. They give Russian approaches to Chinese projects taking into account the national interests of the Russian Federation, as well as the
possibility of convergence the Economic Silk Road Zone, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) and the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU).

“SILVER TSUNAMI” IN JAPAN by I.P.Lebedeva, Dr.Sc. (Economics), Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS
Keywords: ageing of population, pensions, medical services, employment, social activities
Japan is facing the process of rapid ageing of population, which is often called “silver tsunami”. Now the proportion of Japanese over
65 years is a quarter of population, and by 2060 it will rise to almost 40%. This puts very complex problems to Japanese society. From one side - it is necessary to provide senior citizens with decent level of pensions and with adequate level of medical services, and from other side - to create the conditions that allow them to live a full life. Until recently Japan as a whole has successfully cope with these tasks. But the problem is that the maintenance of decent standard of living of senior citizens is becoming increasingly burdensome for working generations and for society as a whole. If in 2015 there were 2, 3 working age persons for every pensioner, by 2060 this figure will drop to 1, 3.

 

 Point of View

CHINESE LASBOR MIGRATION TO RUSSIA: WHAT IT PROMISES TO OUR COUNTRY by V.G.Gelbras, Dr.Sc. (History), Institute of Asia and Africa, Lomonosov Moscow State University
Keywords: PRC, Zabaykalsky Krai, labor migration, forest resources, environmental protection measures, quality of fertilizers and pesticides, Russian farming
Over the past few years, the number of Chinese immigrants engaged in agriculture in Russia has increased rapidly. The results of their activity are distinctly negative. Application of illegally imported chemical fertilizers, pesticides, numerous fertilizers prohibited even in China, and genetically modified seeds as well as unacceptable ways of cultivating land are harmful to the health of people and animals, cause damage to the fishery industry. The terms of land lease in the border areas increase as well. Chinese methods of management lead to the situation when soil becomes inappropriate for farming for a long time. And as a rule considerable capital investments are required to restore soil fertility.
In a number of regions the only reasonable solution to the problem is found to be the development of farm enterprises. There are all necessary personnel, natural and climatic, economic and theoretical conditions to implement it in Russia. It is the way that has been chosen in a number of regions of the country.

 

 From Our Staff Correspondent

TRAM IN ADDIS ABABA by V.P.Nemchenko, our Staff correspondent in Ethiopia
Keywords: Ethiopia, tram, Addis Ababa
Tram has appeared in sub-Saharan Africa. Two lines of this mode of transport, the Ethiopians call it “light rail vehicles system” was launched in Addis Ababa recently. The first line was opened for operation on 20 September 2015, the second - a month later.

 

 Post-Graduate Column

SOME ASPECTS OF THE INFORMATION DIMENSION OF GLOBALIZATION IN THE ARAB EAST by E.S.Pelevina, Post-graduate student, North-Western Institute of management, Russian Academy of national economy and public administration under the President of the Russian Federation
Keywords: information and communication technologies, Internet, information war, cyber- terrorism, globalization, Arab countries
The article is devoted to the study of problems of the influence of globalization processes that occur in the Middle East, the development of the Arab countries in the context of informational dimensions of globalization. The basis of the article was the coverage of the influence of the Internet, information cybernetic impact on the transformation of Arab society in light of the geopolitical processes and information globalization. The purpose of this article is to study the impact of information measurement of globalization on the development of the Arab region at the present stage. In conclusion, the article concludes that, to date, the development of information technologies takes place at many levels with tangible support from the Arab governments on the basis of specially developed it strategies. However, such dynamic information the development of the Arab region is as vulnerable to an external cyber threat, and the region poses the danger of information warfare for modern States and for international organizations and transnational institutions.

RELIGION, RELIGIOUS BELIEFS, CULTS NEW  RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS IN CONTEMPORARY NIGERIA by O.I.Kavykin, PhD (History), Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: postcolonial studies, Nigeria, new religious movements, Christianity, society, culture, economy, identity, political process
The article’s topic is the Nigerian churches of the Aladura group (as well as «The Brotherhood of the Cross and the Star which are compared to Aladura). These religious organizations are the striking examples of new religious movements that are composed of the elements of traditional spiritual culture of Africans and the elements of spiritual culture of Christianity. These movements, which take into consideration both spiritual and material inquiries of Africans, have become quite popular in Nigeria and beyond the bounds of the country.
Realizing Nigerians’ spiritual needs, these movements offer both cult’s forms, and new forms of identity, which are preferred by Africans. In respect of realization of material inquiries these churches do not just promise prosperity, but also implement certain social programs in the spheres of healthcare, education and infrastructure. The increasing popularity of those churches encourages to these movements an authority that, in its turn, gives them a certain influence in the modern Nigerian public policy.

 

 Dialog of Сultures: Russia - Japan

«NEW LOOK»  -  CONFERENCE OF YOUNG JAPANOLOGISTS by E.L.Katasonova, Dr.Sc. (History), Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS
Keywords: Japan, conference of young specialists in Japan
Already by tradition, in October 2015 in Moscow for the seventh time held a conference of young specialists in Japan «New Look», was organized by the Division of Japanese culture,
«Japan Foundation» All-Russia State Library for Foreign Literature, Japanologists Association and the School of Oriental Higher school of Economics.
Like all the previous years, it was attended by students, graduate students and young researchers who have chosen to study of Japan and the Japanese language as their profession. In the article the most interesting performances are presented, some of them with the comments.

JAPAN AND RUSSIA: CULTURAL EXCHANGE IN PERFORMING ARTS by V.A.Nizhelskoi, K.Raykin School of Performing Arts
Keywords: theater, but, the form, content, Kata, Kamae, rehearsal, workshop
The present article is devoted to the problem of cultural exchange in the field of performing arts. A brief overview of how it is happening at this time. It’s underlined that there is a need for the implementation of the exchange on a deeper cultural level, so that actors could master elements of other system of acting and use them in their work. An example of such a cultural exchange and cooperation between Moscow Elektortheater «Stanislavsky» and master of traditional Japanese Noh Theater is presented.

 

 Book Review

«WORLDS OF COLOR» by N.E.Khokholkova, Post-graduate student, Yaroslavl State University
Professor D.M.Bondarenko’s book “The Shades of Black. Cultural-Anthropological Aspects of Mutual Perceptions and Relations between African Americans and African Migrants in the USA” (M., 2016) is the first attempt of giving a comprehensive analysis of cross-cultural interaction between two groups of black-skinned people.
On the basis of a large amount of data collected in the course of expeditions the author examines identities, images and features of historic memory that influenced the generation of mutual perceptions and relations between African Americans and African migrants.

 

* Summary