"Asia and Africa today"
- is a scientificl monthly journal (in Russian)
of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Included in Russian Science Citation Index on
WoS platform, and EBSCO Publishing.
ISSN 0321-5075
Published since July 1957.

 

 "Asia and Africa today" № 2 2016

 

 

Azia&Afrika 02-2016

 

 Top Problem

DAESH: TRUE STORIES OF BROKEN DESTINIES by E.I.Bronnitskaya, an independent journalist
Keywords: DAESH*, terrorism, recruiting mechanisms
We offer our readers true stories of three former DAESH recruits. The present-day situation proves that efforts to prevent terrorist recruiting cannot be considered solely as a national security task; the challenge must be taken by civil society as well. Unfortunately, most of the existing instructions on terrorist activity prevention are a set of dry directions, without a hint of real tragedies, or room for emotions and reflections. The goal of this cycle is to reveal the true nature of the “state” created by DAESH, by describing it from the witnesses’ point of view. It is an attempt to literary recount the life stories of those who, for different reasons, turned into cannon fodder of the bloody “caliphate”.
* DAESH (Arab acronym for ad-Dawlah al-Islamiyah fо ‘l-Iraq wa-sh-Sham) is a militant terrorist group; it is also known as IS, ISIS, ISIL, “Islamic State”, “Islamic State of Iraq and Levant”.

CHINESE PROJECT «ECONOMIC BELT OF THE SILK ROAD» by A.V.Ostrovsky, Dr.Sc. (Economics), Institute of Far Eastern Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS)
Keywords: China, «Economic Zone of the Silk Road», Russia, Xi Jinping, the Eurasian Economic Union
In the fall of 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping at the meeting with Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev announced the launch of the project «The Economic Belt of the Silk Road» (EBSR), which consists of two parts - an overland belt through Kazakhstan and Russia to European countries and maritime zone through the South-East Asia. Later, these two projects were named as the initiative «One belt - one way.»
Implementation of this project will provide an opportunity not only to develop greater cooperation between China, Europe and adjacent territories, including Russia, but also facilitate the solution of the world’s global political and economic problems. Construction of the EBSR become a part of the plan of the social and economic development 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-2020.), Which must be announced at the NPC session in March 2016.
In 2015, Russia and China issued a joint statement on cooperation in the construction of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEC) and the EBSR. The implementation of these two large-scale projects will allow, on the one hand, Russia and other members of the EAEC to create a huge scale transit zone for goods from Europe to Asia, to expand markets for their products both in China and other Asian countries. On the other hand, China will have more opportunities to expand their markets for products and obtaining the necessary raw materials for the economy.

 

 Policy, Economy

«INTIFADA AL-QUDS»: ITS ROLE IN THE PALESTINIAN-ISRAELI CONFLICT by A.A.Ermakov, PhD (History), I.V.Ryzhov, Dr.Sc. (History), Nizhny Novgorod State University
Keywords: the State of Israel, Jerusalem, the West Bank, HAMAS
Lately, a wave of violence called «Intifada Al- Quds», i.e. «Jerusalem Intifada», started and subsequently dragged on in the area of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. The chairman of the political bureau of Hamas Khaled Mashaal, said: «The current process is not just an uprising. It’s a «classic «Intifada» with all the characteristic features».
What is the cause of this wave of violence, and what are the differences between this «Intifada» and the previous one? What are the prospects for the subsequent development of events in the regions? These are items examined in the article.

THE CHINESE SYSTEM OF SOCIAL PROTECTION by P.Ya.Tsitkilov, Dr.Sc. (History), Don State Agrarian University
Keywords: Chinese model of social protection, poverty, social welfare and care, social insurance, the role of the traditional family, participation of public organizations and private enterprise in social protection
The article provides an analysis of the modern Chinese system of social protection of the population. The most important directions of its functioning are considered. It’s underlined that in China along with the development of insurance mechanisms of social protection the state is also involved in the active participation in the field of the so called social support. This can be seen in the practice of providing social assistance to poor citizens and their families, to the disabled, street children and orphans. The state promotes the social welfare of people through the mechanisms of compensation of expenses for education, housing and more.
Chinese state also provide social care for soldiers, their families and persons enjoying special respect in the society. To the peculiarities of the Chinese model of social protection of population can be attributed to the continuing importance of traditional family factor in the practice of social support, and involvement of NGOs and private enterprise in the sphere of social protection. These and some other question are analyzed in this article.

 

ENERGY: THE PRESENT AND THE FUTURE

CHINA. ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTS IN THE FIELD OF ENERGY by E.A.Borisova, PhD (History), Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS
Keywords: China, energy, the 12th Five-Year Plan, environment, resources, renewable energy
China faces enormous internal and external challenges, one way or another related to its economic growth. The pressing problem of the country - the development of a more secure, sustainable and clean energy.
One of the major challenges for China today is a serious environmental situation in the most Chinese cities and settlements. It is known that 16 of the 20 most polluted cities of the world are located in China. The reason for this is a rapid industrialization. The economic growth of the country secured the last decade
- an average of about 10% of annual GDP growth - has been achieved at expense of deterioration of the environment and public health. It was followed by air pollution, water problems (pollution and shortages), pollution and soil erosion. Foor instance in the North China the life expectancy has decreased by 5,5 years. Debilitated environmental causes a growing social discontent.
The energy sector has played a significant role in the deterioration of the ecological situation in the country. One third of the greenhouse gases emitted each year comes at the expense of the work is the Chinese industry, especially energy as primary energy in the country is coal.

AGRICULTURE OF SOUTH AFRICA: NEW TRENDS OF DEVELOPMENT by A.D.Khamatshin, PhD (Economics), Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: South Africa, agriculture, export
The article contains the study of dynamics, structure and prospects of agricultural production in South Africa since the end of apartheid. Despite the emerging of small-scale farmers, the land reform has not so far had a significant impact on the change in the social structure of the agricultural sector.
Some conclusions are made regarding the effect of market liberalization on the structure of the capital assets and geographical shifts in agricultural production. Changes in crop production and exports are analyzed.

 

 Foreign Expert Opinion

EDUCATION AND CULTURE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF EAST AFRICA by Dr. Alice J. Kurgat, Department of History, Political Science and Public Administration, Moi University, Kenya, Dr. Paul K. Kurgat, Moi University, Kenya
Keywords: education, culture, East Africa, communities, national development
At first the authors speak about changes in the education system in the late colonial and post-colonial period, which was characterized by: a massive expansion of educational institutions of all levels; a provision of technical and professional instruction and Africanization of the curricula and professions. Africans were opposed to colonial education from the start. Because of that education has become an aspect of politics, and the missionaries provided very little literary education. Hence, all the African political association in one way or another took education as one of their major concerns.
Speaking about culture and its influence upon the development they apply to the Tanzanian case which illustrates that culture is based on ecological systems, structure, socio-historical processes and within different environments interacted creating layers of cultural identities. Africans and Arabs interacted and created Swahili culture though with diverse identities. Tanzania aimed at harmonization of development and culture through the “Ujamaa” concept as culture was perceived as a tool for development.
In conclusion the authors point out that according to UNESCO, placing culture at the heart of development policy constitutes an essential investment in the world’s future and a pre-condition to successful globalization process that take into account the principles of cultural diversity.
They also underline that education plays a major role in nation building, especially by producing professional elites in the various fields. It suffices to note that, what kind of development the region envisages is dependent on the question of regional identity, which in essence, is a cultural question. Education and culture have become agents for national development and regional integration.

 

 Post-Graduate Column

POLITICAL ASPECTS OF APEC: RUSSIA AND CHINA by You Han (Сhina), Postgraduate student of St. Petersburg State University
Keywords: APEC, the political aspects, interaction of Russia and China
The article presents the political aspects of the interaction of Russia and China in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). Singling out the most important event of the APEC in every period of history, the author introduces them to readers through the prism of the documents of that time. The issues such as the process of Russia’s becoming a member of APEC, the APEC summit-2012 in Vladivostok, a comparison of the APEC summit-2001 in Shanghai with the APEC summit-2014 in Beijing were examined. Considering the factor of Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), the author analyzes the challenges for Russia and China to ensure their national interests and to implement government strategies. It is concluded that APEC has a positive effect for the mutual development of the countries in Pacific region, which is particularly important for the implementation of strategies of Russia and China, to strengthen their position in the Asia-Pacific region.

FIGHT FOR “OPEN SKIES” by A.A.Tyrtov, Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS
Keywords: the Open Skies policy, Gulf and the USA Airlines, travel liberalization
The Article considers a dispute between the biggest Gulf (Emirates, Etihad Airways, Qatar Airways) and USA (Delta, United, American) Airlines. Formerly USA initiated the Open Skies policy liberalizing an intentional air travel to establish favorable conditions for USA airlines. Currently the lead Gulf carries intensively use this policy for their routes expansion. Not all actors are ready to accept such scenario. The Article examines USA airlines’ charges and the Gulf airlines’ denials.

 

 Scientific Life

GENDER ASPECT OF TERRORISM AND VIOLENCE IN THE EAST AND IN AFRICAN CONTINENT by N.L.Krylova, Dr.Sc. (History), Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: Oriental studies, African studies, gender studies, gender inequality, social emancipation, mixed marriages, violence, terrorism, family conflict, women’s rights
The round table «Terrorism and violence in the East and in Africa. Gender aspects» is a regular scientific inter-institution event organized by the Group for Gender Studies throughout the last three years. The focus of this project is the study of the societies experiencing the long-term armed conflict behind which there are usually dynamic social transformations and powerful social reconstructions, which leave their impact also on the culture of gender relations.

 

 Our Interviews

MYSTERIES OF ANCIENT EGYPT: ON THE EVE OF NEW DISCOVERIES. Interview with Egyptian archeologist Zahi Hawass by K.V.Meshcherina, Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: Zahi Hawass, Ancient Egypt, archeological discoveries, scientific activity, protection of ancient monuments
Recently, at the invitation of Russian philanthropist, founder of Charity Foundation of St. Basil the Great K.V.Malofeev, Moscow with a lecture program visited the famous archaeologist and historian, former Secretary General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities of Egypt Zahi Hawass. One of his lectures
«The pyramids, mummies and Cleopatra: The latest archaeological discoveries in Egypt» he read to students and teachers of the Institute of Asian and African Studies of The Moscow State University. At the end of it, he gave an interview to our magazine.

 

 Culture, Literature, Art

STUDY OF MODERN JAPANESE CULTURE IN RUSSIA by E.L.Katasonova, Dr.Sc. (History), Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS
Keywords: Japan, popular culture, manga, anime, globalization
The article is devoted to the study of contemporary Japanese culture in Russia. Particular attention is paid to the various aspects of the popular culture of Japan, its popular destinations such as manga and anime, and their impact on young people.
This article deals with the studies of the modern Japanese culture in Russia. A special attention is paid to the analysis of the different aspects of the Japanese mass culture and it’s most popular products, such as manga and anime, their influence on the youth.

 

 Book Review

UNKNOWN CONGO by G.M.Sidorova, PhD (History), Institute of African Studies, RAS
The book «Cold War» heart of Africa». The Soviet Union and the Congolese crisis, 1960-1964 (Moscow, Dmitry Pozharsky University. 2015. 312 p., with illustrations) is written by S.V.Mazov, doctor of history, chief researcher of the Center for African Studies of the Institute of World History. It’s dedicated to one of the most complex and controversial periods in the history of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
As a result of hard work of the author with the primary sources the gaps in the history of the Congo have been filled in and a number of important clarifications have been made. Some new facts related to the death of the national hero of the Congo Emery Lumumba were presented and analyzed.
Also noteworthy is the pictorial material that the author of «pulled» from the archival vaults: Rare photos of politicians in our country and the Congo, working meetings, speakers for freedom of Lumumba and forgotten, but very eloquent, cartoons from the newspaper «Pravda» and the magazine «Crocodile».

IN SEARCH OF THE LOST EAST by A.G.Belova, Dr.Sc. (Philology), Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS
The presentation of the book titled «In Search of Lost the East: Yu.N.Zavadovsky: sketch of the life and work; autobiographical novel «(Moscow, publishing house «Vikmo-M», 2014, 512 pp.). The book has multiple authors, but the main author and the protagonist himself acts Yu.N.Zavadovsky (1909-
1979) - the well known orientalist, professor, who gave the Russian Science the last 25 years of his bright and busy life. Among the authors of the book are relatives, friends, colleagues and students of the outstanding scientist.

 

* Summary