"Asia and Africa today"
- is a scientificl monthly journal (in Russian)
of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Included in Russian Science Citation Index on
WoS platform, and EBSCO Publishing.
ISSN 0321-5075
Published since July 1957.

 

 "Asia and Africa today" № 1 2016

 

 

Azia&Afrika 01-2016

 

 Top Problem

THE FACT IN THE MIRROR OF THE FOREIGN MASS MEDIA

LAST FLIGHT OF “Su-24” by D.I.Vinitsky (our Staff correspondent in Egypt), K.V.Meshcherina (Post graduate student, Institute for African Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences/RAS), N.I.Petrov (Staff observer)
Keywords: new heading, foreign mass media, Putin, “stab in the back”
The magazine starts publishing on its pages a new heading: “The fact in the mirror of the foreign mass media”. We will acquaint our readers with the most interesting publications of foreign press about the most important events which have happened lately in the countries of Asia and Africa.
Citations will be given without any changes, with minimal cuts and comments. Therefore, readers will be given an opportunity to get acquainted with the views of international experts on current issues in Asia and Africa. These views, of course, will not always coincide with the position of Russian experts in international affairs.
As the first such fact, riveted the attention of politicians and journalists all over the world, we have chosen an unprecedented, according to Putin, “stab in the back” of Russia as November 24 last year in the skies over Syria our Bomber “Su-24”, which was carrying out a combat mission in the framework of the counter-terrorist operation against “Islamic state” was shot down a Turkish fighter jet.

TERRORISM IN SYRIA TODAY AND TOMORROW: prospects of collective opposition to “Islamic state” by M.S.Hodynskaya-Golenishcheva, PhD (History), 2nd Secretary, the Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the United Nations Office and other International Organizations in Geneva
Keywords: Syria, “Arab Spring”, terrorism, “Islamic state”, multipolar foreign policy
The author analyzes the crisis in Syria which resulted in a surge of radicalism and unprecedented increase of world terrorism. It’s quite evident that under present circumstances there is a vital necessity to work out an integral collective strategy of fighting against jihadists based on norms of international law.
Operation of the Russian Air and Space Forces (VKS), which began Sept. 30, 2015, has already undermined the capacity of existing terrorist groups in Syria - the “Islamic state”, “Al-Nusra Dzhabhat” and the others. This is a factor that will largely determine the development of events around Syria and the Middle East in the near future.
In this regard, it is hoped that the Russian initiative aimed at consolidation of the efforts of the world community on the platform of struggle against the IG will be a catalyst for cooperation between regional and international players to resolve the Syrian crisis and to achieve the broader goal - to stabilize the situation in the Middle.

GEO-ECONOMICS STRATEGY OF CHINA by V.G.Gelbras, Dr.Sc. (History), Institute of Asian and African Studies, Moscow State University
Keywords: geo-economics strategy of China, economic superiority, system of control
The author presents the reconstruction of geo-economics strategy of China which demonstrates a claim to build a global system of economic superiority. Transcontinental highway on land and on seas allow China to form a kind of external system of control over productive forces of the countries of Asia, Oceania as well as of Europe, Africa and Latin America. For implementation of infrastructure and other facilities China is using a strategy of lending, equipment, technology, production materials, various kinds of services, as well as work force.
The author comes to conclusion that the proposed China projects provide very favorable conditions for the further economic development of the country.

 

 Policy, Economy

DAMNED NINETIES by A.M.Vasiliev, Academician
Keywords: Russia, the USSR, reforms, foreign policy, the Middle East and North Africa
“All what is healthy and viable in the political and civil life of each country must be carefully nurtured ... and no reform caused by the requirement of the time should result in a sudden rupture between the past and the present. It should be realized gradually to become clear to the people and not have the character of a dangerous experiment”. S.D.Sazonov, Foreign Minister of the Russian Empire (1910-1916).
The collapse of the Soviet Union meant the greatest geopolitical catastrophe of the second half of the twentieth century. 14 new states appeared on the territory of former superpower Russia. Thousands of books have been written about this historical event. Explanation of the causes of this disaster and details of its course is beyond the scope of this article.
We only note that, from the point of view of the author, and it was exactly Russia which was the Soviet Union. Russia was at the head the federation which consisted of 14 dependent countries - Soviet republics. Its administrative borders became international (which gave rise to hitherto unsolved problems). Russia found itself in the borders of the XVII century. The country entered a period of economic, social, military, demographic decline.
The author analyzes the impact of the internal situation of Russia on the foreign policy of the country in general and its policy in the Middle East and North Africa, in particular.

SOUTH AFRICA: POLITICAL LIFE TODAY by V.G.Shubin, Dr.Sc. (History), Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: South Africa, BRICS, elections, xenophobia, student unrest
Among the events which have taken place in South Africa in recent years, there are three the most important: the BRICS summit hold in Durban (the group consisting of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa), the death of Nelson Mandela and the general election.
Like any other country, South Africa is facing a lot of various problems caused by both internal and external reasons. Nevertheless during each visit of the author to this state he realizes that there is striking difference between the actual situation and the picture being drawn by the so-called international media. The latter’s are always portraying South Africa as a country, which is on the verge of collapse and transformation into a failed state.
Disproving this opinion the author presents including the following argument. Its a common practice to complain about the “expulsion” of white citizens from South Africa. In fact, the situation is quite the opposite: for last five years 359 thousand emigrants have returned to the country. In most cases these ex-emigrants are white people. This and some other facts allow South Africans despite all the difficulties to look optimistically to the future.

VICTORY OF THE OPPOSITION AT THE ELECTIONS IN ZAMBIA: POLITICAL PLURALISM IN ACTION by L.Ya.Prokopenko, PhD (History), Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: political pluralism, K.Kaunda, opposition parties, elections, Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD), Patriotic Front (PF), Michael Sata, Edgar Lungu, media
The article analyzes the development of political pluralism in modern Zambia. After entering in early 1990s into the process of political liberalization, this country has demonstrated for a quarter of a century its ability of political progress towards democracy without a violent change of government and without bloody ethnic and religious conflicts that have occurred in other African countries. Peaceful accession to power of the opposition party the Patriotic Front (PF) led by Michael Sata in 2011 and its second victory at the early presidential elections held on 20 January 2015 after his death are evidence of ethno-political stability in Zambia. The article examines particularly the use of media and of the Internet by the opposition in its struggle for power.

COMBATING CORRUPTION IN SINGAPORE: STRATEGY AND PRACTICE by E.M.Astafieva, Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS
Keywords: Singapore, corruption, Prevention of Corruption Act (POCA), Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), increase of civil servants wages program, optimize administrative management program
The article gives a brief description of the fight against corruption in Singapore. Author gives the characteristic of the main approaches to the fight against corruption in different countries and the necessary conditions for the successful implementation of combating corruption.
The author examines the situation in Singapore with corruption under the British colonial administration and the Japanese occupation period. She is describing in detail the Singapore’s Government complex program to combat corruption, since the People’s Action Party coming to power in 1959. Paper expounds the major amendments anti- corruption legislation. It set out the main functions and tasks of the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB) in Singapore. Attention is paid to some government programs aimed at combating corruption, in particular, the increase civil servants wages program, as well as the complex administrative measures to optimize administrative management, improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the public services.

WILL BRITAIN HAVE AN AFRICAN FUTURE? by G.A.Karpov, PhD (History), Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: United Kingdom, Africa, migration
The article gives a brief overview of African migration to the UK last decades. The main emphasis is made on the analysis of modern trends of development of African communities in Great Britain, challenges which Africans, especially African youth confront with, and their achievements.
A special attention is paid to the demographic and linguistic perspectives, disappointing for indigenous British and very optimistic for migrants from Africa and their descendants. The author has tried to present the material in accessible language, with a minimum of special terminology. The article can be interesting for both narrow specialists and for a wide range of readers interested in African migration to Western Europe.

YOUTH OF JAPAN: ASPIRATIONS AND LANDMARKS by L.V.Zhilina, PhD (History), Omsk State University
Keywords: Japan, younger generation, prospects, values
Elder generation is worried that modern youth has very primitive level of political socialization, civic culture and patriotism. What are the aspirations and values ??of young people who grew up in a peaceful and prosperous Japan now? The purpose of the study is to understand how the young Japanese perceive their country.

 

 Point of View

INDIAN LESSONS FOR RUSSIA by N.A.Listopadov, Dr.Sc. (History)
Keywords: Russia, India, Indian experience, decentralization, turnover of authorities, civil society
The author believes that India is interesting for us as an example of a fairly rapid socio-economic development on the basis of market principles and modalities of the established democratic system, although with Indian characteristics. It could be rather useful for Russia to look at the Indian experience.
Of particular importance is the experience of this country in solving the problem of relations between the center and regions. The article also indicates that the big politics is being cooked not in only in Delhi. In other words, there is no such super centralization which characterizes the state system of Russia.
Finally, it is important that the Indian society is characterized by organic pluralistic, which creates conditions for self-organization of large populations.
Summarizing his views the author expresses an opinion that the Indian experience demonstrates the need of sustainable development of reasonable decentralization, creation of the mechanism of change of power, an independent judiciary, and an autonomous public service. Do not do well without the formation of a vibrant civil society, free media and the maintenance of social orientation in government.

 

 Events, Facts, Comments

10th ANNIVERSARY OF THE PRINCIPAL BUDDHIST TEMPLE OF KALMYKIA: “GOLDEN MONASTERY OF BUDDHA SHAKYAMUNI” by S.L.Kuzmin, PhD (Biology), Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS, T.L.Shaumyan, PhD (History), Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS
Keywords: Kalmykia, Principal Buddhist temple in Kalmykia, Buddhism, reincarnation, Tuva, Shadzhin Lama Cham, Tibetology, buddalogiya
Colorful celebrations devoted to the tenth anniversary of the Central khurul - the principal Buddhist temple in Kalmykia - “Golden monastery of Buddha Shakyamuni” was held in Elista, the capital of the Republic of Kalmykia. As part of the celebration the international forum “Buddhism in the dialogue of cultures of the East and West: past, present and future” took place.
One of the central ideas of Forum 2015 - Dialogue of Cultures between East and West, the dialogue between religion and science - the idea which the Dalai Lama is actively enforcing and which is fully supported by the political leadership and the scientific community of Kalmykia.

 

* Summary