"Asia and Africa today"
- is a scientificl monthly journal (in Russian)
of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Included in Russian Science Citation Index on
WoS platform, and EBSCO Publishing.
ISSN 0321-5075
Published since July 1957.

 

 "Asia and Africa today" № 7 2015

 

 

Azia&Afrika 07-2015

 

 Top Problem

“ISLAMIC STATE” IS A REAL DANGER by E.M.Primakov, Academician
Keywords: “Islamic state”, Sunni radicals, officers- Baathists, Syria, Iraq, the United States
А new work of a prominent politician, statesman and scientist Yevgeny Primakov “Russia: hopes and fears” is published in Moscow. One section of the book is devoted to the analysis of the causes, expansion and victorious march of the movement “Islamic state”. According to the author, this is largely a result of short-sighted policy of the United States/ Washington is often solves its problems, which are often contrary to the interests of other countries, without thinking about tomorrow.
Giving a helping hand to terrorist of “Al Qaeda” in Afghanistan, the intervention in Iraq, Washington’s support for the forces leading the fight against the current regime in Syria - all that has contributed to the emergence of a powerful movement of Islamic radicalism. The fight against the threat posed by the IG requires cohesion countries.
No disagreements, including on the “Ukrainian question” should not interfere with the fight against international terrorism.

RUSSIA AND EGYPT: THE GOAL IS STRATEGIC COOPERATION by N.A.Zherlitsyna, PhD (History), Institute for African Studies, Russian Academy of Science (RAS)
Keywords: Russian-Egyptian relations, political cooperation, energetic, trade, investment
There was a rapprochement between Russia and Egypt in recent times due to several factors, such as coincidence of the political aspirations, interest in economic cooperation, good personal relations of the heads of the states. Egypt is a long-standing and reliable partner of Russia. Russia and Egypt aspire to diverse, comprehensive cooperation. It involves relations in the political, military, economic and scientific-technical spheres, and in knowledge-intensive sectors of the economy: energy, space exploration, nuclear technology. Russian-Egyptian business Council and the Intergovernmental Russian-Egyptian Commission play an important role in the development of bilateral cooperation and in efforts to overcome existing institutional and bureaucratic barriers. Russia’s return to Egypt is of great importance to strengthen the whole range of Russian-Arab relations.

 

 Policy, Economy

INDONESIA. 70 YEARS OF STRUGGLE, OVERCOME AND DEVELOPMENT by A.Yu.Drugov, Dr.Sc. (Political Science), Institute of Oriental Studies, RUS
Keywords: Indonesia, Sukarno, colonialism, the Netherlands, Pancasila, the Soviet Union, ASEAN, Suharto
In August 17, 2015 the Republic of Indonesia, the fourth country in the world in terms of population (250 million people), one of the top ten countries in terms of GDP, celebrates the 70th anniversary of the sovereign existence. But actually its emergence as an ethnic group happened much earlier. If we agree with the fact that one of the factors in the formation of the fortunes of nations is a community of destiny, Indonesia is the best proof: the bitter fate of the colonial existence united many ethnic groups of the population, which were very different in many respects: in ethnic, cultural, religious and civilization relations.

HOW CONFUCIANISM MANAGED TO DISPLACED MOISM TEACHING IN MODERN CHINA by A.V.Goncharuk, Indira Gandhi University
Keywords: China, Confucianism, Moism, Socialism
The article analyses the political structure of ancient China and explores the main reasons for emerging of new teaching branches such as Confucianism and Moism. The article reviews the basic ideas of both teachings and determines theirs connection with the political system of the period. The research goes through a historical path of Confucianism development and analyses its current status as a basic semi-religious and ethical teaching within China and brand-image of the country in overseas regions. The cross-parallel comparison with Moism teaching is conducted and comparison with the key-ideas of Socialism teaching is made.

JAPANESE SOCIETY: FROM EQUALITY TO STRATIFICATION by I.P.Lebedeva, Dr.Sc. (Eco- nomics), Institute of Oriental Studies, RAS
Keywords: society, middle class, non-standard social groups, stratification
During last two decades under influence of a number of factors the Japanese society has undergone essential changes. The equality of incomes, roughly the same level of welfare of different layers of population, orientation of the most part of families toward a certain standard way of life and toward common system of values have changed by the evident division of society by income level and social status, by differentiation of life styles and life preferences. As a result the new social groups were formed, first of all among young Japanese, which life styles and system of values represent the evident deviation of common norms and values. The most part of those, who belong to these non-standard groups, live at the expense of their families or state support, and their existence represent not social problem only, but economic one as well.

CORRUPTION IN INDIA by M.S.Slonskaya, Moscow University of International Relations
Keywords: India, corruption
The article contains a brief overview of the extent of corruption in India. The author characterizes the impact of the corrupt practices on the country’s economy, politics and social sphere. The evolution of corruption during the pre-colonial and colonial periods and also after India’s getting independence from the British Empire is described. The influence of the liberal reforms of the early 1990s on the extent and forms of corruption is analyzed. The article examines the main corruption scandals and their consequences. Several Indian political parties are characterized in terms of their involvement in corrupt practices. The article deals in detail with the measures taken by the Indian authorities to fight against corruption.

STRUGGLE FOR COMMON CAUSE? The memory of the events of the recent past and mutual perception of African Americans and contemporary African migrants in the USA by D.M.Bondarenko, Dr.Sc. (History), Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: African migrants, African Americans, Civil Rights Movement, downfall of apartheid, historical memory, intercultural interaction
African Americans and Africans do not form a single “Black community”. The relations between them are characterized by simultaneous mutual attraction and repulsion. Among reasons for this, an important part is played by those differences in their self-identification as communities, in construction of their own cultural tradition and in attitude to the other cultural tradition. Both are related to the reflection of the past in historical memory.
Based on the evidence collected during fieldwork in
2013 and 2014, the article discusses reflection in historical memory of African Americans and contemporary African migrants of important recent events in “Black American” and African history: the Civil Rights Movement of 1954-1968 in the US and the fall of the apartheid regime in South Africa in 1994.

REVOLT IN THE ARABIAN WORLD: CROPS AND SHOOTS

SUDAN’S REGIONAL POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE ARAB CRISIS by S.V.Kostelyanets, PhD (Political Science), Institute for African Studies, RAS
Keywords: Arab Spring, Sudan, Islamism, Muslim Brotherhood, foreign policy, conflicts
The Arab crisis known as the “Arab Spring” began in late 2010 and manifested itself in the change of regimes in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen, in a civil war in Syria, and in mass unrest in many other Arab countries. The wave of protests has not bypassed Sudan, weakened by serious domestic political and economic problems associated primarily with the separation of the oil-rich south of the country. In the situation of sharp economic recession and political instability the country, however, has taken advantage of the destabilization of the Middle East and North Africa to strengthen its role in the region. The article discusses certain aspects of the formation of Sudan’s foreign policy at the present stage. The author focuses on Sudan’s relations with Egypt, Libya, Iran, Saudi Arabia and Qatar.

 

 Scientific Life

CHINA: AT A NEW STAGE OF ECONOMIC REFORM by I.V.Vakhrushin, PhD (Economics), Institute of Far Eastern Studies, RUS
Keywords: China, scientific conference, the Institute for Far Eastern Studies, economic reform, the results of 2014, sectoral and regional problems
In March 2015, the Institute of Far Eastern Studies hosted the annual scientific conference of the Center for Social and Economic Research of China under the general heading of “China in the new stage of economic reform.”
The participants outlined the main results of the economic and social development of China’s national economy in 2014, the 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-
2015).

 

 Events, Facts, Comments

BUDDHIST CULTURE: FROM THE POSSIBILITY OF “SOFT POWER” TO LUMBINI POTENTIAL by B.U.Kitinov, PhD (History), Russian University of Peoples’ Friendship
Keywords: Buddhism, Buddhist culture, “soft power”
In recent years, Buddhism is not only more popular religion in different parts of the world, but also the object of an in-depth attention from the public authorities of the countries on whose territory the doctrine has spread. In the latter case, the reason is, in many ways, within the meaning of Buddhism as the so-called “Soft power”, capable to provide some assistance in dealing with internal and external problems of the state.
However Buddhist figures themselves and Buddhist organizations are aware of the need for joint discussions and looking for the ways of development of Buddhism and Buddhist culture in today’s multicultural world.

 

 Russia and The East

SHE LEFT “RUSSIAN TRACE” ON THE FIFTH CONTINENT by G.I.Kanevskaya, Dr.Sc. (History), Far East Federal University, Vladivostok
Keywords: Australia, Russian emigration in Australia, N.M.Christesen-Maksimova, Russian studies, University of Melbourne, St. Petersburg
Nina Christesen-Maksimova (1911, Blagove- shchensk - 2001, Melbourne) is the founder of Russian studies in Australia. Thanks to her efforts the first university department of Russian studies was founded at the University of Melbourne. Nina Christesen is the most famous Russian on the fifth continent, but her name, like the names of many other prominent Russian emigrants, remained unknown at home.
The article is devoted to the activities of N.Christesen aimed at development of cooperation between Russian and Australian cultures and contacts with the homeland, which she truly loved.

 

 Post-Graduate Column

FRANCE-TROPICAL AFRICA: NEW QUALITY OF RELATIONS? by K.I.Pakhorukov, Saint Petersburg State University
Keywords: France, Tropical Africa, defense agreements, military and technical cooperation
The article shows the evolution of the French policy in Africa during two last decades in the light of bilateral agreements in defense field between the French Republic and the states of Tropical Africa. The relevance of this publication is determined by the fact that in the 2000s the new form of agreements were signed between France and the countries of the region in the 2000s and also due to the military operations carried out in the Republic of Cote d’Ivoire and in the Central African Republic.

 

 History Pages

GHANA THROUGH THE EYES OF THE SOVIET AMBASSADOR by E.D.Ostrovenko, PhD (History). Ending
Keywords: Ghana, Accra, Provisional National Defence Council, Jerry John Rawlings, chiefs of the local tribes, Asantehene
The Russian diplomat, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the USSR to the Republic of Ghana in 1989-1991, shares his recollections about this African country and her leader of that time: Flight Lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings, the Head of State and the Chairman of the Provisional National Defence Council. The author dwells on the state of bilateral relations and cooperation between the USSR and Ghana and pays much attention to the history of Ghana, her population, languages and other characteristic features. The reader will learn about the chiefs of the local tribes, the Asantehene of the Ashanti people in particular, and their spokesmen - so called
«linguists» as well as about official ceremonies and popular festivals held in the country.

 

 Book Review

JOURNEY ON THE WAVES OF MEMORY by A.A.Sukhoparov, PhD (History)
Keywords: Afghanistan, the Soviet-Afghan relations, the Soviet Embassy in Kabul, history, ethnography, memorials, art and culture of Afghanistan
This is a review of a new book of Soviet and Russian diplomat, orientalist, M.A.Konarovsky “Road to seven thousand days” is published in Moscow. The author began his diplomatic career as a translator and finished in positions of the Ambassador of Russia in Afghanistan, Sri Lanka and Croatia.
For several years he worked in Beijing as the Deputy Secretary General of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. The book contains a wide range of documentary sources, including archival, photo illustrations that the author used in the preparation of monographs and of great historical and artistic value.

FATE OF THE SCOLAR IN THE ERA OF CHANGE by S.A.Gorokhov, PhD (Geography), Institute of Geography, RAS; R.V.Dmitriev, PhD (Geography), Institute of Geography (RAS) and Moscow State Pedagogical University
The book in memory of Oleg Malyarov (1935-
2013), Dr.Sc. (Economy), Principal Researcher of the Center for Indian Studies (Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences) is written by different authors from different cities: Moscow, New Delhi, Tomsk, Velikiye Luki, Dushanbe, Tashkent. Subject matter of the book is concerned with combination of the quintessence of Malyarov’s scientific ideas, concepts, his scientific and practical advice and personal memories of him as an uncommon and bright man, scholar, Patriot, Citizen.

 

* Summary