"Asia and Africa today"
- is a scientificl monthly journal (in Russian)
of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Included in Russian Science Citation Index on
WoS platform, and EBSCO Publishing.
ISSN 0321-5075
Published since July 1957.

 

 "Asia and Africa today" № 1 2015

 

 

Azia&Afrika 01-2015

 

 Top Problem

THE US-AFRICAN LEADERS SUMMIT by A.Yu.Urnov, Dr.Sc. (History). Part 1
Keywords: the United States, Africa, the US-Africa summit, the Law on economic growth and trade opportunities in Africa, Africa
On the initiative of President Obama the US-African Leaders Summit was held in Washington on August 5 and 6, 2014. Out of 50 African countries which participated in this assembly, 42 were represented by heads of states and governments.
For the United States it was the first summit meeting with Africa, while Japan have regularly convened similar ones since 1993, and China and European Union - since 2000.
Behind the decision to host the summit was Washington’s striving to reverse the course of events in the “battle for Africa” which the United States have been losing to other world actors, first of all China, both geopolitically and economically. It was expected that through exerting influence on Africa from “the very top” the United States would be able to regain its leading positions on the continent.
The article depicts the proceedings of the summit, dwells upon US-Africa relations in economic and military fields. Spatial attention is paid to Washington Yong African Leaders initiative aimed to cultivate in Africa the future generation of pro-American ruling class.
The summit may be assessed as a short term success. The long term results are yet to be seen.

 

 Policy, Economy

IS INDIA THE SEVENTH ACTOR IN SCO? By Ye.S.Kovalenko
Keywords: India, Russia, China, the SCO
The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) was established in June 15, 2001 in Shanghai (China) at the meeting of six countries (Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan). Now a new dimension of the SCO is being formed, focused on the broader geopolitical (Eurasian) context. At its heart - the system of the observer countries, India included. At the same time Delhi has consistently expressed willingness to raise its status to a full member of the SCO.
The author considers the arguments for which India is willing to join the SCO, and what consequences it will have for both the country and for the organization itself.

TURKEY AND THE GULF MONARCHIES: POLITICAL DIFFERENCES AND ECONOMIC INTERESTS by A.V.Glazova, PhD (Philology)
Keywords: Turkey, the countries of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States (GCC), the «Arab Spring», the Gulf monarchies, «Muslim Brotherhood», the Syrian crisis
Throughout the twentieth century, Turkey and the Arabian monarchies (united in the Cooperation Council for the Arab States - GCC), showed no interest in development of political and economic relations. This was due to several reasons, among which the most significant were orientation of the foreign policy of the Turkish leadership towards the Western countries, the differences between the political systems of secular Turkey and traditional monarchies of the Arabian Peninsula, as well as the negative impact of the historical experience of the Ottoman heritage.
In 2002 Justice and Development Party of Turkey has come into power and signifies the beginning of a new multi-vector foreign policy strategy of Turkey, known as the concept of «strategic depth». The highest priority is given now to the development of cooperation with the countries that were once upon a time parts of the Ottoman Empire. Emphasis is given to the use of «soft power» and to building of the image of Turkey as a model for others to follow.

MUSLIM COMMUNITY IN FRANCE: ISLAMIC IDENTITY AND SECULAR SOCIETY by B.V.Dolgov, PhD (History). Part 2
Keywords: France, Muslim community, integration, secular democracy, Islamic identity
Due to historical ties between France and the Maghreb countries (North Africa) the largest Arab-Muslim community among the countries of the European Union (EU) has developed nowhere else but in France. According to various sources, France is a home to 7,5 million Muslims (the population of France in 2008 totaled 64,5 million people. About 82% of them came from the Maghreb).
Most of the Muslim community in France preserves its Islamic identity. This is largely due to the French secular democracy, which gives everyone real right of freedom of conscience. However, full integration into society of Muslim migrants and their subsequent generations who were born in France and received French citizenship, did not happen.

THE ROLE OF TRANSPORT IN DEVELOPMENT OF CHINA by S.L.Sazonov, PhD (Economics)
Keywords: the Trans-Siberian Railway, international transit corridor, logistic chain, freight, transit potential, transport infrastructure
The article discusses the possible ways and means of integration of the Russian Federation into the international transport system for the purpose of increasing the share of Russia in the international traffic between Asia-Pacific and Europe. The internal and external factors affecting the incorporation of the Trans- Siberian Railway in international transit corridors are identified and analyzed. The basic advantages of land transit through the territory of Russia are committed. The implementation mechanisms for realization of the national policy of development of the transport complex of the Far Eastern Federal District are formulated. In addition, this article provides analysis on the importance of enhancing cooperation with China in the field of transportation construction. Based on the study, the authors presented the rationale for the creation of a new Russian intercontinental integrated transport line as a guarantee of its geopolitical and economic security.

AUTHORITIES AND OPPOSITION: CON- FRONTATION OR COOPERATION? by L.M.Sadov- skaya, PhD (History)
Keywords: Senegal, Cote d’Ivoire, crisis, coalition, opposition, elections
The article analyzes the relationship between the current government and the opposition in two West African countries - Senegal and Cфte d’Ivoire. The author highlights the growing political influence of the opposition in both countries. Particular attention is paid to the features of the policy pursued by the incumbent presidents - M.Sallem and A.Uattaroy towards the opposition. The paper presents an evaluation of the existing authorities given by opposition leaders. The author analyzes the political situation in these two countries and tries to give a forecast on the eve of the presidential election.

 

ISLAM, ISLAMIZM AND EXTREMISM

SYRIAN WAR OF «HEZBOLLAH» by N.A.Berenkova
Keywords: Middle East, «Hezbollah», war in Syria, Lebanon, the «Arab Spring»
Currently the representatives of many countries are participating in the fighting in Syria. Many organizations and military groups have declared the whole Middle East a zone of their actions. However, the events in Libya and Syria suggest a new level of development of the phenomenon.
The author is considering the main reasons which made the Lebanese “Hezbollah” to join the conflict on side of the Syrian government and the consequences it will have for Lebanon.

THE FATE OF “COLONEL IMAM” SHOWS THE WORLD THE REAL FACE OF THE TALIBAN by P.V.Gusterin
Keywords: intelligence agencies, espionage, informants, Soviet troops in Afghanistan, al-Qaeda, «Taliban»
The article focuses on the role of Amir Tarar, the influential member of the Pakistani intelligence in the events that engulfed Afghanistan after the fall of the monarchy. The author examines the destiny of the “colonel Imam” after the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan, including his role in the war against the Taliban, in which he participated on the side of the latter. Also, the author emphasizes the difference between the Afghani Taliban and al-Qaeda as it was characterized by Tarar, examines characteristics he gave to the Pakistani Taliban.
In conclusion, the article tells the story of the fate fell upon the “colonel Imam”.

 

WORLD ECONOMY: PROBLEMS OF REHABILITATION

THE MECHANISMS OF ECONOMIC RESTRUCTURING IN THE GCC STATES by Ye.S.Biryukov, PhD (Economics)
Keywords: the Gulf counties, hydrocarbon resources, model of economic development
The role of the GCC states in the world economy is determined by their significant hydrocarbon resources. Thanks to oil production these countries have been able to overcome socio-economic backwardness during a very short period during the last decades and caught up with the industrialized countries by a number of defining indicators.
Oil exports provided national savings, ensured systematic changes in the economic development - import of modern equipment, arrival of foreign specialists, construction of roads, sea ports and other infrastructure.
The author considers the main aspects that characterize the model of economic development of the GCC countries at present time and their foreign economic relations. А high degree of dependence of economic growth on foreign economic activity is shown, as well as successes and failures of attempts to diversify national economies.

 

POWER ENGENEERING: PRESENT AND FUTURE

SOLAR ENERGY OF NORTH AFRICA by A.Yu.Noskov
Keywords: solar energy, the European Union, North Africa, the Union for the Mediterranean, investments
North African countries have great potential for solar energy development. And naturally, that it is of interest not only for their governments and business communities, but also for foreign investors. In recent years, in the countries of North Africa, in spite of their relatively modest advances in the solar energy sector, we see a heightened interest in this sphere.

 

 Events, Facts, Comments

WHY PAKISTANIS DON’T LIKE THEIR NOBEL PRIZE WINNERS by A.A.Suvorova, Dr.Sc. (Philology)
Keywords: Nobel Peace Prize 2014, Pakistan, India, Malala Yousafzai, conspiracy theories
On 10 October 2014, Malala Yousafzai, a school-girl from Pakistan, was announced as the co-recipient of the 2014 Nobel Peace Prize for her struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education. At age 17, Yousafzai is the youngest Nobel Prize laureate in history. Yousafzai shared the prize with Kailash Satyarthi, a children’s rights activist from India. She is the second Pakistani to receive a Nobel Prize, Abdus Salam being a 1979 Physics laureate. After she won the Nobel Peace Prize, there was praise but also some disapproval of the decision to award it to her. Yousafzai’s critics in Pakistan say that her fame highlights Pakistan’s most negative aspect, and the West’s admiration of her is hypocritical because it overlooks the plight of other innocent victims, like the casualties of U.S. drone strikes. Some journalists described her as being used to justify Western imperialism as «the perfect candidate for the white man to relieve his burden and save the native».

DAYS OF AFRICA IN SWEDEN by G.A.Balashova, PhD ( Philology)
Keywords: Sweden, African Studies, «Days of Africa»
African Studies in Sweden has deep roots - the Center for African Studies at the University of Dalarnskom (Dalarna University) is existing for many years, and in January 2014 he became a self-contained unit in Falun, where masters are trained - the only such a center in Sweden.
«Days of Africa» - a forum which takes place annually in Falun for 10 years. Scholars from various countries of Africa and Europe, Russia included. are invited to participate. Topics of their reports varied - from changes in the ecology of Africa to the socio-political and literary changes in the busy life of the African continent.

 

 Russia and The East

VLADIMIR TRETCHIKOV - SOUTH AFRICAN WORLD-WIDE KNOWN RUSSIAN PAINTER by Yu.S.Skubko, PhD (Economics, Arts)
Keywords: Vladimir Tretchikov, Russian painter, realistic art, kitch, South African art
The article examines the life and art of Vladimir Tretchikov (1913-2006), a famous Russian painter who was born in the Petropavlovsk city before the revolution. Tretchikov, a world celebrity, for some art lovers was a popular master of kitch, for others - a great realist. He is almost unknown in modern Russia.
Rescued in childhood from Bolshevik Russia by his parents, he lived in China, Singapore, and in Indonesia which was in those years occupied by Japanese. Finally he settled in South Africa which became his adoptive country for two thirds of his life (died in Cape Town). A talented self-taught painter, he developed his art to become a real master (primarily in portrait painting) keenly balancing between realism and fairy-tail. His creative heritage contains a rich mixture of Oriental, African and Russian motives. The artists centenary brought new wide public interest in this incredibly creative personality.

 

 Scientific Life

THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA: HOW NELSON MANDELA WAS PHOTOGRTAPHED by K.E.Simonson, Vilnius Academy of Arts (Lithuania)
Keywords: South Africa, the Jews from Lithuania, photo, Nelson Mandela, Eli Weinberg
By the beginning of this century about 90 thousand Jews were living in the Republic of South Africa and about 80% of them - came from Lithuania. It so happened that among white population it was Jewish Diaspora which was most actively involved in the struggle against apartheid, vigorously supporting Mandela. The authorities persecuted the Jews as well as other fighters against racism. In those years documentary photography played very important role in political life of the country. It was widely and constantly used in the ideological struggle between the state and opponents of apartheid. Photography has played a crucial role in condemning the brutality and illegality of the existing system, primarily pictures of Nelson Mandela made by a Lithuanian Jew Eli Weinberg.

 

 Post-Graduate Column

PAYMENT SYSTEM OF IRAN by L.A.Andreev
Keywords: Iran, finance, payment system, non-cash payments
Computer technologies have a great influence on the performance of private companies and public institutions, contributing to their growth. Particularly large impact of such technologies have on the payment systems, because thanks to them, providing the convenience of calculations for all types of transactions, as well as multiple increase the speed of payments for the needs of all sectors of the economy. Notable successes in this area are characterized by modern payment system of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

“MISSION OF APOSTOLIC FAITH IN THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA” AND MODERN CHALLENGES by N.A.Voronina
Keywords: “Apostolic Faith of Mission”, Pentecostals in South Africa
The article touches upon several aspects of modern development of the biggest Pentecostal Church in South Africa - Apostolic Faith of Mission of South Africa. The demise of the apartheid regime in the 1990s ushered in a new era in the development of the South African society, with Mission desperately seeking its place in it. The article puts a special emphasis on the challenges confronting the modern church such as a fall of popularity of religion in South Africa, potential Islam reinforcement, robust popularity of charismatic mega churches.
It also reveals new methods of management of the church and appeal to parishioners - “New Apostolic Paradigm”. Furthermore, it shows how churches tend to get engaged into politics, which manifested itself during the recent May 2014 Parliamentary elections.

 

 Culture, Literature, Art

BUCHI EMECHETA: “TO BE IS TO BE FAMOUS” by T.M.Gavristova, Dr.Sc. (History)
Keywords: Buchi Emecheta, novel, London, Nigeria, feminism, postmodernism, African diaspora
The article is dedicated to history of Buchi Emecheta - writer and publisher, the author of over 20 books on women’s lives. On July 21, 2014 she celebrated her 70-th birthday. She lives in London since 1962. Her first novel, “In The Ditch», was published in 1972. Since then, the popularity of the writer only increased. The article traces the origins of writer’s creativity. The author analyzes gene substratum of Buchi’s works, their links with the traditions of postmodernism and Igbo people.

SYRIA: ABDUL HAMID AND HIS FILMS by A.S.Shakhov, PhD (History)
Keywords: Syria, movies, Abdul Latif Abdul Hamid
Creativity of the Syrian film director, screenwriter and an actor, Abdul Latif Abdul Hamid enjoys great interest not only in his own country, but also abroad. Hamid has graduated from the Institute of Cinematography, Moscow. His movies have been marked with prestigious awards at international film festivals for multifaceted and truthful reflection of the problems of the national reality, as well as insightful and intelligent character of his movie heroes.

 

* Summary