"Asia and Africa today"
- is a scientificl monthly journal (in Russian)
of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Included in Russian Science Citation Index on
WoS platform, and EBSCO Publishing.
ISSN 0321-5075
Published since July 1957.

 

 "Asia and Africa today" № 11 2014

 

Azia&Afrika 11-2014s

 

 On the 85th anniversary of Academician of Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) Y.M.Primakov

HE HAS NOT BECOME A MONUMENT TO HIMSELF… On the 85th anniversary of Academician of Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) Y.M.Primakov by A.M.Vasiliev, Academician of RAS

Often, a person who has risen to great heights, in old age becomes a monument to himself. Not so with academician Yevgeny Primakov , the author claims.
Y.Primakov did not become excessively proud of himself though he has reached the top in all the fields of his activity - policy, science, literature: Prime Minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Director of the Foreign Intelligence Service, the head of the Chamber of Commerce, Academician of RAS.
The role Y.Primakov played in policy President V.V.Putin has characterized in such a way: “Russia in its history has repeatedly found itself on edge of the abyss. But there were always persons such like Y.Primakov, who pushed the country away from the abyss. This was the main role played by Y.Primakov in the history of Russia”.
He has written two dozen books, not to mention countless articles. In the books Y.Primakov combined scientific knowledge with understanding of human psychology, the Arab and the Israeli mentality, taking into account the multi-variant scenario of development of events.
A.Vasiliev checks out his congratulation with the following words: «Overcoming age, illness, fatigue, Y.Primakov remains for us, orientalists, a player-coach. All of us wish this to last as long as possible…”

 

 Top Problem

PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF AFRICA’S FUEL AND ENERGY COMPLEX: WHAT ARE THE INTERESTS OF RUSSIA by I.O.Abramova, Dr.Sc. (Economics), L.L.Fituni, Dr.Sc. (Economics)
Keywords: Africa, Fuel and Energy Complex, Struggle for Resources, Russia’s Interests
The article focuses on the assessment of the African energy raw materials in the post-crisis world economy. It reveals the quantitative and qualitative transformation of Africa’s role as a source of increasingly scarce energy resources for the world economy, which slowly recovers after the deep financial and economic crisis. Important shifts in the fields of exploration, extraction, transportation, sale and consumption of African energy raw materials have been studied. The increase of Africa’s role as a provider of such resources had been proved, particularly for the West. At the same time the separation and confrontation lines between the major world players for those resources have been identified. Special attention was paid to the possibilities and limits of cooperation and complementary actions of Russia and major African producers in the world oil and gas markets. Recommendations are formulated, some of which may be used by Russian organizations when elaborating external economic policy line vis-а-vis African states.

 

 Policy, Economy

PRIORITIES OF THE FOREIGN ECONOMIC POLICY OF INDIA by N.V.Galishcheva, Dr.Sc. (Economics). Part 2
Keywords: India, liberalization of the economy, foreign policy, «Look East»
The article deals with the main directions of Indian external economic policy in 1990-2010s, the main aim of which is the country’s integration into the world economy. The political and economic establishment of India considers that target as one of the most important factors of national economy’s effective development.
The author draws attention to weakening position of Russia in the Indian external economic policy’s priority system in 1990-2000s and to the fact that Russia hasn’t got powerful instruments for widening cooperation with India like those of the USA, the EU, Japan, China and the ASEAN-countries have. This has been revealed on the basis of statistical data and analysis of economic cooperation between India and these states.
The mutual cooperation with the above-mentioned states is developing on a wide range of areas: from environment and health-care system to biotechnology, ICT, space sector and civil nuclear power engineering. The author indicates that perspectives of the Indo- Russian partnership heavily depend on the progress of economic effectiveness in Russia.

TURKEY AND THE NUCLEAR PROGRAM OF IRAN by A.V.Suleymanov, PhD (Political Science)
Keywords: Turkey, Iran, the USA, Iranian nuclear program, Turkish-Iranian relations
One of the major and actual problems of modern world politics - the Iranian nuclear program is discussed. This problem has become an integral part of political agenda of many states, first of all - Russia, China, the USA, Israel and the European Union. They have different opinions concerning its decision. However the author focuses on exploration of position of Turkey, which is playing an important role in a context of settlement of a situation around of the given problem.
The author gives a historical characteristic of development of the Iranian nuclear program. The opinion of Turkish and Iranian political leaders on the problem is analyzed. Particular attention is given also to consideration and to estimation of positions of the USA and Israel concerning the given problem.

«DEMOGRAPHIC DIVIDEND» AND THE FUTURE OF AFRICA by I.O.Abramova, Dr.Sc. (Economics)
Keywords: Africa, developing countries, demographics, geo-strategic rivalry, social instability
Development of the world economy in the early twenty-first century was marked by tectonic shifts in the balance of the leading economic centers of power. The most important change in the existing economic model of the world has been the rise of large developing countries, which have become a kind of locomotive of world development.
Rapid population growth in Asia and Africa over a decade or two will shift vector of international trade and global financial flows vector in the direction of these continents. Growth of the economically active population in the developing countries and its reduction in Western countries over time will increase the share of the first in the world production of industrial products and, ultimately, will contribute to the growth of exports from Asian and African countries in the Western states, which will reduce the share of trade between by the developed countries.
Calculation of GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) suggests that in the period from 2012 to 2050, the top of the list of countries with the fastest growth rate of the economy will be the largest in terms of population African country - Nigeria.

ZAMBIA’S FOREIGN POLICY: TOWARDS PROGMATIZM by L.Ya.Prokopenko, PhD (History)
Keywords: Zambia, foreign policy, African Union, SADC, NEPAD, economic diplomacy
The article examines the foreign policy of modern Zambia. The dynamics of development of the country’s foreign policy in the 50 years of independence proclaimed in October 1964 are considered as well as the priorities of foreign policy at the global and African level, cooperation of Zambia with the member- countries of BRICS and stages of the 50-year history of relations with the Soviet Union/Russia. Particular attention is paid to the so-called «Economic diplomacy» which was headed for under President Rupiah Banda and is pursued by the incumbent president Michael Sata.

CHINA’S BANKING SYSTEM: MAIN TRANDS OF DEVELOPMENT AND REFORMS by A.N.Vdovin
Keywords: China’s banking system, China’s economy trends, reforms, banks, shadow banking, finance liberalisation
Economic development of China, as well as existing problems in the national financial system, demand continuous reform and improvement of the national banking system. This article presents detailed analysis of reforms and major trends of development of China’s banking sector. The author carried out comprehensive analysis of ongoing reforms of China’s banking system. All the reform are systematized and divided into three groups: the «political» group, the group of structural reforms and the group of technical reforms.

ON THE WAY TO A NEW MODEL OF AGRARIAN DEVELOPMENT OF CHINA by L.D.Bony, Dr.Sc. (Economics). Part 1
Keywords: reform, agrarian economic system, land system, farm economy forms, family farm, peasant cooperative, agricultural enterprises, collective ownership of land
The article deals with the problem of transition to a new model of agricultural development of China resting on the formation of the agrarian economic system of “a new type”, that meets the requirements of modern agriculture as well as reflects the Chinese specific traits: joint development of many forms and types of farm economy, the family economy and the right to collective ownership of land in the village as the basis of the system.

 

 From Our Staff Correspondent

«DEATH BY NAME EBOLA» by V.A.Melnikov, our staff correspondent in Ghana
Keywords: Ebola virus,     Ghana, Economic Community of West African States
«Outbreak of Ebola, which is raging in West Africa - the largest, most complex and difficult for the 40-year history of the disease. The number of new patients is growing much faster than the ability to cure them, «- said Margaret Chan, the Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO).
West African countries take feasible measures to prevent the spread of the deadly disease, which originated in the humid tropical forests. However, the outbreak of the Ebola virus in West Africa is estimated by the WHO as an emergency and requires efforts of the world community, because medical equipment centers are too weak to cope with the disease.

 

 Events, Facts, Comments

MECCA IN «SILVER»: REPORT FROM THE EXHIBITION A UNIQUE COLLECTION OF SILVER STAMPS by K.V.Meshcherina
Keywords: The State Museum of Oriental Arts, Moscow exhibition, Mecca, silver stamps, the Islamic countries
In the summer of 2014 at the State Museum of Oriental Art in Moscow, a unique collection of silver marks of 999 fine silver was held. They dedicated to the holy places of Mecca, Saudi Arabia - the main spiritual center and a place of pilgrimage for Muslims all over the world.
The originals of replica silver stamps were the usual stamps issued in 24 Islamic countries, among them - Afghanistan, Algeria, Bangladesh, Iraq, Cameroon, Kuwait, Libya, Mauritania, the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and others.

 

 Post-Graduate Column

JAPAN: GENDER INEQUALITY by A.R.Saakyan
Keywords: abenomics, female economic activity, gender inequality, Japan, social infrastructure, workforce
The article gives a brief overview of demographic trends in Japan after World War II, and also provides forecasts of age structure changes in Japanese society until the middle of the XXI century and of the subsequent working age population number reduction in the country. Increase in female economic activity is pointed out as one of the possible methods of filling up the upcoming workforce shortage and gender inequality is marked out as a significant obstacle to its practical application.
The gender inequality level is examined in various areas of the life of Japanese society - business, politics, science - in comparison with other leading developed countries and the steps taken by the government of the country to overcome the problem are described. Also some estimations of the possible positive economic impact of overcoming gender inequality in Japan are cited in the article.

 

 History Pages

CHINA IN THE BEGINNING OF REFORMS. DIARY NOTES 1985-1986 by Yu.V.Chudodeyev, PhD (History). Part 2
Keywords: China, economic reforms, Fudan University, Sino-Soviet relations
For last several decades rise of China has become the most conspicuous case of acceleration of history in socioeconomic field. Therefore the first steps of the country on the road of reforms deserve a lot of attention. Indeed, there are many documents, books and other sources on this subject. But we have not so much, at least in Russian, of evidence from those who witnessed those times themselves.
The author, a lifetime Sinologist, visited the country in 1966 in the heyday of Red Guards’ rampage and then 20 years later when for Chinese that period had become an uneasy piece of the history. He found quite a different country full novice’s entrepreneurial spirit, desire to acquire Western technologies and to some degree even Western behaviors and way of life. Often it looked rather naпve and half-baked but the people demonstrated abilities to adapt to new realities, great willingness to move forward, and traditional industriousness.

 

 Culture, Literature, Art

BETWEEN SHAME AND REVENGE: THE DESTINY OF WOMEN IN BANGLADESH by A.A.Suvorova, Dr.Sc. (Philology)
Keywords: Bangladesh, feminism, Islamic fundamentalism, fatwa, women rights’ cause
Taslima Nasrin (b. 1962) is a Bangladesh writer and radical feminist. In her poems, novels, and newspaper columns she has advocated equal rights for women and attacked male chauvinism in a country dominated by conservative Islam. In September, 1993 members of an obscure religious group called the Soldiers of Islam demanded Nasrin’s execution, posting a reward for her death.
Nasrin’s 1993 novel, Lajja, or Shame, containing scenes in which Muslim men rape Hindu women, sparked a campaign against her that escalated in Bangladesh into riots and increases in the amounts of money offered for her murder. Her case became an international cause cйlиbre when the Bangladeshi government banned her novel and decided to prosecute her. After seeking refuge in Sweden, Nasrin responded to her persecution by attacking Islamic fundamentalists in her another novel, Shodh, or Revenge. Her judgments in attacking her enemies and some of her self-serving statements have been questioned even by the liberals sympathetic to her cause both in India and Bangladesh. An avowed atheist, she argues for a modern, secular state as the only way to protect women’s rights.
Our magazine is publishing a story “Motherhood” by Taslima Nasrin.

 

 Book Review

ARAB EAST AFTER A VIOLENT DEMOCRATIZATIO by E.I.Doroshenko, PhD (Linguistics)
The interview with A.Z.Egorin, the leading Russian specialist on the history of Libya, mostly concerns the comparatively recent past of the country, covering the period from the mid-1970s to 1980. A.Z.Egorin, who then worked for the Soviet Embassy in Libya, speaks of his numerous meetings with Muammar Gaddafi, describes the Libyan leader’s personality and shares his memories of the country of that time. In particular, A.Z.Egorin comments on the political role Libya then played in the MENA region, and after that briefly characterizes the present-day situation there. He also underscores the unique role which Gaddafi set for himself, “walking the way to immortality”.

UGANDA, SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE: YESTERDAY, TODAY AND TOMORROW by N.V.Vinogradova, PhD (Economics)
Library of Africanist has been replenished with a new reference book and a monograph: the book by A.P.Pozdnyakova «The Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe» (Moscow, Russian Academy of Sciences IAFM, 2012, 148 p.) and «The Republic of Uganda» (Moscow, Russian Academy of Sciences IAFM, 2012, 218 p.).
The book by A.P.Pozdnyakova is the first domestic monograph devoted to Sao Tome and Principe, this largely unexplored, but extremely interesting country located on islands in the Gulf of Guinea of the Atlantic Ocean.
Reference monographic edition of «The Republic of Uganda» contains a detailed description of the natural environment, highlights the major periods of historical development of the country, describing the economic and social, political and cultural aspects.

 

* Summary