"Asia and Africa today"
- is a scientificl monthly journal (in Russian)
of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Included in Russian Science Citation Index on
WoS platform, and EBSCO Publishing.
ISSN 0321-5075
Published since July 1957.

 

 "Asia and Africa today" № 7 2014

 

Azia&Afrika 07-2014

 

 Top Problem

THE PACIFIC RIM AS A BRIDGEHEAD OF RIVALRY BETWEEN CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES IN THE XXI CENTURY by Ya.V.Leksyutina, Dr.Sc. (Political Sciences)
Keywords: the Pacific Rim, territorial disputes, strengthening of economic and overall national strength of China, American «return « to East Asia, US-China regional rivalry
Tremendous changes are going on in the Pacific Rim (PR) in the XXI century. Economic power of several states of the PR is rapidly strengthening, integration processes in the economy are gaining momentum, both on a bilateral basis in the form of free trade agreements, and in the form of the creation of extensive regional trade blocs. At the same time some disturbing trends are developing, such as worsening of territorial disputes in the sea and on land, the militarization of the region, the arms race.
One of the most important factors influencing the developments in the region is strengthening of the economic and overall national strength of China, growing interest of Chinese leadership in expanding its presence in the near environment, and increasing its operating capacity - in other, more remote regions of the world.
Another such a factor is a decision made in 2011 by the Obama administration on the «return» of the U.S. to East Asia, carried out with the support of traditional political- military tools. This decision is a part of the so-called «hedge policy», or «policy restrictions» of Beijing’s influence in the region.
Taking all together it might increase US-China regional rivalry, acutely raises the question about the future of Sino- US relations and the potential for cjntradictions between the two powers.

 

ENERGY: THE PRESENT AND THE FUTURE

BECOMING AN ENERGY SUPERPOWER: CHINA’S EXPERIENCE by E.N.Petelin (Part 2)
Keywords: China’s foreign policy, energy security, international climate change regime
China’s entry into the world energy system has brought economical as well as political impact of global nature. In 2014 China has become the world’s top oil importer, overtaking the U.S. that used to be dominating in this field since 1970s. However, the highest level of critics faced by China from the international community concerns the fact that this country is now the world’s biggest CO2 emitter, which is mostly connected with the China’s energy structure.
How the developing country with shortage in energy resources and technologies should act in international affairs to maintain a stable economic growth and an international image of responsible power? The analysis of geopolitical and geoeconomic aspects of the modern China’s energy policy helps to answer this question.

 

 Policy, Economy

NEW ROLE OF RUSSIA AND ITS FUTURE RELATIONS WITH GULF COUNTRIES AND KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA (KSA) by AWADH AL- BADI, King Faisal Center for Islamic Studies
Keywords: Russia, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the Gulf countries, policy, ideology
Unstable situation in the world does not allow Russia to develop a long-term strategy in the region and achieve its strategic goals. However, the turbulence in the New East gives Moscow a chance to manipulate events here, realizing its national interest and increasing its role. This is exactly what the Russian foreign policy demonstrated in the last period.
The «Arab Spring», the ongoing Syrian crisis and weakness of the current American administration - these are three factors which also contributed Russia to strengthen its positions in the region.

JAPANESE INVESTMENTS IN THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST: THE CURRENT SITUATION AND PROSPECTS by Z.V.Petrunina, PhD (History), Komsomolsk-on-the Amur River University
Keywords: Far East of Russia, Japan, the investment policy
The article contains the analysis of the current investment cooperation between Russian Far East and Japan. It notes that despite the increase of Japanese investments in the Russian economy on the whole, the inflow of Japanese investment to the Russian Far East’s economy is insufficient. The author points out that the bulk of Japanese investments are directed to the energy-related industries. The reasons of this kind of the Japanese investment policy the Russian Far East are defined. The prospects for Japan’s participation in investment projects in the Far East of our country are further analyzed. The article deals in detail with the alternative investment projects which can be of interest for Russia and Japan. The author suggests the ways of attracting Japanese investors to the Far East of Russia.

IRAN: THE POLITICAL AND DEMOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT AS A FACTOR OF STABILITY AND SHOCKS by A.S.Khodunov
Keywords: demography, political stability, youth, revolution, reduced fertility
The article deals with the demographic processes in Iran in the second half of the 20st and the beginning of the 21st century, in particular, about the unprecedented fertility decline after 1989. The age structure during this time has changed dramatically, which was manifested in the rapid growth of the number and the proportion of youth. This was an important factor of the Islamic revolution.
Nowadays because of the fertility decline dynamics of the number of youth don’t jeopardize the political stability of the country anymore. But until recently, in spite of the growth of youth being still quite high, the situation in Iran, unlike countries of the “Arab spring”, remained stable. The cause of this is the presence of the effective democratic institutions and the high level of legitimacy of the political regime in Iran.

ISRAEL: PRINCIPLES OF FIGHT AGAINST TERRORISM by V.V.Zelenyi, PhD (Political Sciences)
Keywords: principle of fight against counter-terrorism, Israeli Counter-Terrorism activities
In this article the author’s interpretation of the concept of «the principle of fight against terrorism» is presented. Two main sources on the basis of which the principles of counter- terrorism have been formulated are highlighted.
Based on those sources principles of combating terrorism are divided into two levels - a practical and institutional. Based on the content of the Israeli Counter-Terrorism activities the principles of practical level formulated and discussed. The estimation of principles of the practical and institutional levels is presented.

URANIUM INDUSTRY IN KYRGYZSTAN: PROSPECTS FOR RUSSIA by M.V.Starchak
Keywords: uranium mining, uranium industry, uranium tailings, Kyrgyz Republic, Kara-Balta mining complex
The article deals with the history of the origin of the uranium industry in Kyrgyzstan, Kara-Balta mining complex there and the problem of uranium tailings. It marked by the decline of the uranium industry of Kyrgyzstan and dependence on Russia. The article deals with causes of the origin and decline of the foreign companies in the field of uranium mining in Kyrgyzstan. It shows the value of uranium waste and the rehabilitation of tailings dumps possibility in connection with the global shortage of raw materials. It assesses the prospects of the resumption of uranium mining in Kyrgyzstan and the importance of world prices for uranium raw material. It proposed the conclusions which are important for the development of the Russian nuclear industry, needing and dependent on foreign uranium raw material.

LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES IN AFRICA: PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT by I.B.Matsenko, PhD (History). Part 2
Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa, least developed countries, prospects of development
A least developed country (LDC) is a country that, according to the United Nations, exhibits the lowest indicators of socio-economic development, with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world.
Today there are 49 least developed countries in the world. Most of them - 70% (34 states) are in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where they make up the bulk of the countries in the region.
There are three main criteria used to determine the status of LDC: a low level of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, weak development of human potential, high degree of economic vulnerability. The author focuses on the problems and prospects of development of the LDCs in Africa, the peculiarities of economic growth at the present stage.

 

 Foreign Expert Opinion

SOUTH AFRICA: ISSUES OF NATIONAL RECONCILIATION AND REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY by Ndali-Che Kamati, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Republic of Namibia in the Russian Federation
Keywords: Zimbabwe, Namibia, South Africa, national reconciliation, democracy and good governance
The concept of national reconciliation was the strategy in the political discourse in Zimbabwe and Namibia after independence and in South Africa after democratization. The aim was to avoid a civil war, which endured neighbor countries Angola and Mozambique after these two countries have got independence.
According to the author reconciliation, which is limited with harmonizing of relations between blacks and whites and between the new government and the capital, is not sufficient. Reconciliation must ensure fundamental right of access to natural resources for black majority which was previously deprived of that right and guarantee economic prosperity of indigenous people.

 

 Scientific Life

REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA - 50 YEARS by N.I.Petrov
Keywords: United Republic of Tanzania, Institute for African Studies, Academician A.M.Vasiliev
Solemn meeting held April 22, 2014 at the Institute for African Studies (IAS) was devoted to the Fiftieth anniversary of the United Republic of Tanzania (URT). Institute staff members, scholars of Oriental and African studies, undergraduate and graduate students from Africa studying in Moscow universities, representatives of the African diplomatic corps have participated.
Opening the meeting, IAS Director Academician A.M.Vasiliev recalled that the Soviet Union took an active part in the formation of the young state, that the Soviet experts have done a lot of training for the Tanzanian army, as well as for the development of some sectors of the economy.
The report about the achievements of modern Tanzania was made by Julius Amaneil Mjemah, Charge d’Affaires of URT in Russia.

UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA: 50 YEARS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOP- MENT by S.M.Shlyonskaya
Keywords: URT, Tanganyika, Zanzibar, union, development
The article contains a brief history of the formation of the unique union state, a review of difficulties and challenges of this process. The author deals with the ways of solving the various problems in state formation, economic development, in eradication of poverty, diseases, illiteracy. Serious consideration is paid to different periods in economic development, to economic and social programs, especially in education and public health. The progress in these spheres is shown as well as the problems. The article contains the estimation of Tanzanian’s role in international life, underlines its contribution to the struggle for African independence and peace.

TANZANIA POLITICAL SYSTEM: FROM UNION TO FEDERATION? by Ch.M.Turyinskaya, PhD (History)
Keywords: Tanzania, union, Unitarianism, federalism, the constitutionn
Celebration of the anniversary - half a century since the founding of the United Republic of Tanzania - provides an occasion to reflect on trends in political development of African states, about integration and disintegration processes which are taking place in the Black Continent, on the problems of sovereignty and separation of powers, on the fate and prospects of unions and federations.
In recent years, fundamental changes in political, economic, social and cultural development are undergoing in Tanzania. Much of Nyerere’s heritage are things of the past. But in the political lexicon his idea of African Unity still used: the draft of the new constitution confirmed allegiance to creating a «United States of Africa «, and as a model for the integration of the continent Tanzanians still see the union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar.

ZANZIBAR: THE FIRST YEAR AFTER UNIFICATION by O.I.Teterin, PhD (History)
Keywords: Zanzibar, Zanzibar Revolution, ORT , Swahili
The 50th anniversary of the Union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar is a historic event not only for these two states, but for all of Africa: it is the only union state on the continent, which survived. Unlike most other African countries over the half century there was not a single internal ethnic conflict in Tanzania - and this is despite the fact that people of 120 nationalities are living in the country: large and small, many of whom have their languages, traditions and religion. But all of them share a common language - Swahili.
The author knows well Tanzania. For the first time he came to Zanzibar in the distant 1965, a year after the formation of the union state. Together with his fellow student he was sent to the island as an interpreter of Swahili in the first group of Soviet military specialists. Later, in 1978-1982 he worked in this country as a head of the Bureau of the Novosti Press Agency (APN). That gave him a chance to travel all over the districts, which could be reached by car. Knowledge of Swahili gave the author the opportunity to communicate with representatives of the various segments of the population - really unique opportunity. Few Europeans could boast of such an opportunity!

 

 Post-Graduate Column

ECOLOGICAL CONFLICT AS PART OF ETHNOPOLITICAL CRISIS IN SOUTHERN NIGERIA (stages and perspectives) by D.G.GEORGI
Keywords: ethnopolitical conflict, Niger Delta, multinational corporations, oil production, Nigeria, corporate responsibility
The article examines aspects and stages of conflict between multinational corporations, that produce oil in Niger Delta in the South of Nigeria, and indigenous of the region. Special attention is played to legal claims initiated by ecological companies and indigenous against SPDC, subsidiary company of Royal Dutch Shell. Problem of conflict settlement and conjunction between the conflict and the regional crisis of Southern Nigeria, which is lasting almost 15 years, are also covered.

 

 Culture, Literature, Art

BRUNEI. STORIES OF “THE SON OF BRUNEI’S FROG” by Yu.I.Noskov
Keywords: Brunei, literature, short story, Mussidi
Brunei writer Mussidi is known with his special kind of narrative style in his short stories written at the end of XX - beginning of XXI century.
Article introduces some of the stories of the writer, estimating its animated features as well as self-esteem which Mussidi made at the sunset of the writing career.

 

 Book Review

DOUBLE-FACED YANUS OF THE MODERATE ISLAMISM by M.F.Vidyasova, Dr.Sc. (History)
Keywords: “Arab spring”, moderate and radical islamism, Tunisia, Egypt, political struggle
The author of the book examines the causes of the Arab spring’s revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt, which have the internal nature and the political struggle after overthrow of regimes of Ben Ali and Mubarak which took place in both countries. She also analyses an attempt of the Islamist movements of the Nahda in Tunisia and of the Moslem brotherhood in Egypt, which gained a power in these countries, to Islamize the social and political activity and to monopolize the political powers.
The strengthening of the radical Islamist groups and the intensification of their terrorist actions are noted. The struggle of the leftist and liberal-democratic opposition in Tunisia and Egypt aimed at preservation of democratic principles are described

AFRICAN WOMAN FROM ANCIENT TIMES TO THE PRESENT DAY by T.S.Denisova, PhD (History)
The monograph “Man and Woman. Book 4. History. Culture. Mythology” (M., Institute for African Studies, 2013, 406 p.) by N.A.Ksenofontova, PhD (History), A.N.Moseiko, PhD (Philology) and A.A.Kazankov, PhD (Cultural Studies) is a continuation of a series of books titled «Man and Woman» (2004-2011), in which the authors investigate the dynamics and peculiarities of gender relations in various socio-cultural and historical contexts.

 

* Summary