"Asia and Africa today"
- is a scientificl monthly journal (in Russian)
of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Included in Russian Science Citation Index on
WoS platform, and EBSCO Publishing.
ISSN 0321-5075
Published since July 1957.

 

 "Asia and Africa today" № 4 2013

 

asia afrika 4-2013s

 

 Top Problem

XVIIIth CONGRESS OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY OF CHINA by D.A.Smirnov, PhD (History)

Keywords : XVIIIth Congress of the CPC, economic reform, political system, development, social problems, society of average subsistence level, Deng Xiaoping, Xi Jinping

The author analyzes the main decisions taken at the XVIIIth Congress of the CPC which was held in the end of 2012. In the coming years priority will be given to realization of a long_term strategy aimed at building a society of average subsistence level in China’s through the transformation of the pattern of development growth, acceleration of solution of acute social problems, ensuring the social and political stability through gradual implementation of reforms of the political system and strengthening fight against corruption.

 

 Policy, Economy

CURRENT TRENDS OF CHINA POLICY IN AFRICA by A.R.Boguslavsky

Keywords : Forum on China_Africa cooperation, China, Africa

More than a decade «Forum on Cooperation» is an efficient tool of multilateral cooperation between China and Africa. The fifth China_Africa forum held in Beijing in June, 2012 was aimed to set up «the new type of China_Africa strategic partnership», which would go beyond the bilateral commercial and political contacts. That new kind of partnership should provide enhancement of coherence in the UN, the African Union and different other international organizations, cooperation in the sphere of technology and innovation, science and education. Ultimately it has to create a «secure environment» for the sustainable development of the African continent.

ISLAMIZATION, ISLAM AND EXTREMISM

THE SOCIAL POLICY OF THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN IN THE ISLAMIC CONTEXT by N.M.Mamedova, PhD (History)

Keywords : Iran, social policy, principles of the Islamic legal system, the Gini coefficient, the Mehr program

After the Islamic Revolution of 1979 Islamic leadership faced with the problem of working out the social policy agreeable with the Islamic principles of justice? Some of the directions of social policy of Iran are adequate to the universal norms, while others have religious overtones. But it is obvious that the social policy per se is a priority for the Islamic regime. Its main purpose _ to maintain public confidence in the Islamic form of government.

INDIAN WOMEN. TRADITIONS AND MODERNITY by E.S.Yurlova, Dr.Sc. (History)

Keywords : India, gender, caste, family, gender asymmetry, female infanticide

Indian experience demonstrates that, in spite of 65 years of independent development, adoption of a number of laws aimed at the emancipation of women, in reality women are still one of the most vulnerable parts of society. Traditional submission about roles and identities of women in the family, in caste and in community promote gender inequality. Lately struggle between democratic community and traditionalists on the situation of women deteriorated sharply.

HOW TO OPTIMIZE FERTILITY IN TROPICAL AFRICA by A.V.KOROTAYEV, Dr.Sc. (History), Yu.V.Zinkina, PhD (History)

Keywords : Tropical Africa, demographics, population projections, population explosion, ways to reduce fertility

According to the latest UN forecast published in 2012, in the second half of this century the population of relatively small East African countries such as Kenya and Uganda will exceed the population of Russia. Tanzania will reach Russia as early as 2050, and by the end of this century its population will exceed twice that of Russia. The population of Nigeria will surpass the number of Russians nearly 5 times. That is why these countries face the task to optimize fertility as soon as possible.

SOUTH AFRICA: SUCCESSES AND CHALLENGES  by V.V.Kruchinsky, D.A.Zelenova, PhD (Political Science)

Keywords : Republic of South Africa, the African National Congress, social and economic development, reforms, inequality, political system, foreign policy

The paper describes the proceedings of the round table “Contemporary policies of the African National Congress (ANC): the Critical Assessment”, organized by the Centre for Southern Africa Studies of the Institute for African Studies and held in late 2012. The round table was dedicated to the discussion of the contemporary development of South Africa and the influence of the ruling African National Congress on the domestic and international policies of the country. The debates revolved around social and political development of South Africa, its foreign policy, the state of its army, agricultural reform and its race relations.

 

 Foreign Expert Opinion

NIGERIA: ACTUAL PROBLEMS by Assam E.Assam, the Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Federal Republic of Nigeria to the Russian Federation

This is a report submitted by H.E.Assam E.Assam, the Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Federal Republic of Nigeria to the Russian Federation at the Institute for African Studies in Moscow. The report was a brief excursion into the history of the modern state of Nigeria, including separate stages of economic and political development, the formation of the legal system and security. A special attention was paid to the extremist Islamist group «Boko Haram». The author gave also his assessment of the status and prospects of Nigerian_Russian relations.

 

 Science News

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE IN MUMBAI: NEW PLAYERS AND AFRICAN DIASPORA by T.L.Deitch, PhD (History), V.V.Usacheva, PhD (Political Science)

Keywords : International conference in Mumbai, India, Africa, international relations

Report of the International Conference «New actors and diaspora as an important factor in international relations and development in Africa», held on 29 November 2012 at one of the campuses of the University of Mumbai. The organizers were: Center for African Studies (Moscow), University of Mumbai, and the Institute of African Studies (Moscow), with the support of the Institute of Political Studies of the Association of African Studies, India (PRIASA).

 

 Point of View

HISTORICAL FATE OF BARGA AND THE TRANSBAIKAL by A.P.Tarasov (Chita)

Keywords: the Xinhai Revolution, the Barguts’ rebellion, Great Mongol State

100 years ago after the Xinhai Revolution on the 15th of January, 1912 in a result of the Barguts’ rebellion Barga declared its independence. Russia acted as a mediator, having signed a treaty with China in October, 1915. According to this treaty Barga became a special district subject to Central Chinese Government. After revolution in Russia the Japanese initiated a plan of establishment of Great Mongol State, suggesting consolidation under its protectorate Outer, Inner Mongolia and Barga, that were parts of China, and also Buryat_ Mongolia which was and still is a part of Russia. China concerned with activity of Japan wanted to take an advantage of civil war in Russia and Zabaikalye, deciding to return a total control over Barga. On the 28th of January, 1920 Decree of China Republic President was issued, which declared liquidation of Barga independence.

 

 Post-Graduate Column

HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN CAMBODIA by E.S.Burova

Keywords: Cambodia, human trafficking, prostitution, begging

Prostitution and human trafficking are illegal in Cambodia, but nevertheless are widely spread in big cities and major tourist centers, as well as in border areas. The article reviews the scale of human trafficking, the living standards of people involved in this activity, as well as some measures taken by Cambodian government to prevent it.

 

 Russia and The East

RUSSIA - THE ARAB WORLD: CULTURAL AND SCIENTIFIC RELATIONS by A.B.Podtserob, PhD (History) 

Keywords : Pre-revolutionary Russia and the Arab world, cultural and scientific relations, the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society, Roszarubezhcentr

Transformation of Russia in the XVIII c. into a great power, arrival of the Russian military and commercial ships to the Mediterranean Sea have caused the establishment of political contacts, trade and economic relations with Arab countries. This, in turn, paved the way to establish with them cultural and scientific relations which are analyzed in detail by the author. As of today it must be noted that the scientific and, especially, cultural ties with the Arab world are less intense than in Soviet times, and it will take a lot of efforts to get them to the same level.

 

 Pages of History

WITH DREAMS, DICTIONARY AND BRAVERY by A.K.Polyakov. Part 3 (Part 1 and 2 in “Asia and Africa today”, 2013, № 2, 3)

Keywords : Angola, Soviet military interpreters

The article is a witness story of a Soviet Portuguese language interpreter who in the 1980_s worked in Angola with a detachment of aircrafts An_12. It gives some details of the USSR assistance to this African country which by that time was embroiled in a civil war. The article also contains personal impressions about meetings with Soviet and Cuban flying personnel as well as with UNITA rebel leader Jonas Savimbi.

 

 Traditions, Customs, Morals

THE SUDANESE HAFIRS YESTERDAY AND TODAY by Negood Hassan Bashier

Keywords : Abu Erteila, Meroe, Hafir, Nile, Hor Awlib, Naga, Musawwarat es_Sufra

The article devoted to the ethnographic aspects of life in ancient and modern Sudan in the so called «Island of Meroe» area. Particular attention is given to design of special water basins for collecting rainwater _ hafirs. The remains of ancient hafirs still exist in Abu Èrteila, the site of the excavation of the joint Russian_Italian archaeological expeditions, in Naga, Musawwarat es_Sufra and elsewhere. Some of the hafirs are used up to the present time.

 

 Culture, Literature, Art

VOICE OF FREEDOM AND LOVE FROM UNDER PARANJA by N.Yu.Ilyina, PhD (Philology), N.A.Ksenofontova, PhD (History)

Keywords : Hedzhma, gender relations, traditions and customs of the peoples of North Africa, emancipation

Following their European and American sisters Arab and African women are trying to gain the face (often literally taking off the veil and hijab as a challenge to society) and to declare themselves on the public field. Some of them succeeded: they become major public figures and politicians (members of Congress, government, prime ministers, presidents of countries), famous authors and artists, scholars, winners of the most prestigious international awards. They are already an integral part of the new elite of Africa.

 

 Book Review

MYANMAR: TIME OF RAPID CHANGE by N.A.Listopadov, Dr.Sc. (History) Renowned economist and birmanist A.A.Simoniya published a research on the development of Myanmar over the past quarter century _ “Burma: the transition to a market economy (1988_2011)” (Moscow Institute of Oriental Studies, 2012, 224 p.). The book not only analyzes the economic processes, but also provides a broad picture of the changes in politics, ideology, social and foreign policy of one of the most important countries in South_East Asia.

REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA: THE BRIDGE CONNECTING CONTINENTS by L.S.Okuneva, Dr.Sc. (History) A monograph by A.A.Arhangelskaya «Foreign policy of the democratic Republic of South Africa» (Moscow, Institute for African Studies, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2012, 264 p.). It’s devoted to highly actual problem: RSA is one of the leading African countries, uncontested regional leader on the continent, the country which plays more and more increasing role on the world stage. This is largely due to the fact that at the BRIC summit of 2011 held in China, South Africa became a member of this group, thereby adding the last letter to the acronym - BRICS.

 

Summary