"Asia and Africa today"
- is a scientificl monthly journal (in Russian)
of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Included in Russian Science Citation Index on
WoS platform, and EBSCO Publishing.
ISSN 0321-5075
Published since July 1957.

 

 "Asia and Africa today" № 4 2012

 

Azia&Afrika 04 2012s

 

 Top Problem

REVOLT IN THE ARABIAN WORLD: CROPS AND SHOOTS

EGYPT AFTER ELECTIONS by A.M.Vasiliev, Academician, Director of the Institute for African Studies
Keywords: elections, Freedom and Justice Party, Salafis, Muslim Brothers, US policy, perspectives of Russia
The recent elections in Egypt made possible by the January 2011 revolution, were the first free and fare elections in the country’s history. The majority of Egyptians have tied their hopes for a better future, political freedom and higher living standards with Islamist parties. The Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) created by the Muslim Brotherhood Association has won a resounding victory, collecting 218 seats out of 498. The FJP will form a government and find partners in the parliament after the adoption of a new constitution and presidential elections scheduled for (possible) June this year. The author describes in every detail where the force of the FJP has come from, presents the party electoral program. He goes back to the history of Muslim Brotherhood, those schism and internal struggle which this mass movement went thru. At the same time A.Vasiliev dwells at length on unpredicted success of the Salafis which have become the second biggest party in the parliament. It’s of great interest the description of usual parliamentary maneuvers aimed at forming coalition or reaching agreements on specific issues. Particular attention the author has paid to the problems the American interests have encountered in the region. In fact the US has found itself in a trap of its own dogmas. They called for free elections and got the victory of Islamists in Tunisia, Morocco and now in Egypt. At the meetings with the US State Department high officials the FJP leaders have already expressed their “indignation and condemnation of the continuing gross injustice inflicted on the Palestine people”, and called on the US Administration to change its biased support for the Zionist side. A special part of the article is devoted to possible prospects of future relations between Russia and a new Egypt. A.Vasiliev quotes the statement made by Mohammed Morsy, the chairman of the FJP: “Russia plays an important role in the region and in the world at last, and we hope that this role will grow”.

BRICS GATHERING STRENGTH

BRICS’ ECONOMIES AS A NEW GLOBAL FDI EXPORTER by A.A.Pakhomov, PhD (Economy)
Keywords: FDI, BRICS countries, mergers and acquisitions (M&A), non-financial TNC
From the middle of the past decade a new phenomenon - a large-scale direct investment outflow from the BRICS economies is observed in global investment process and those investments mainly go to M&A abroad. World crisis speedend up development of this trend and revealed problems as well as competitive advantages of investors from the BRICS countries abroad.

BRICS - A NEW ACTOR IN THE AFRICAN CONTINENT by T.L.Deutsch, PhD (History), E.N.Korendyasov, PhD (Economy)
Keywords: BRICS, China, India, Brazil, Russia, Africa, cooperation, trade, investment, resources
The last decade the BRICS group plays more and more visible role in world affairs. The success of BRICS policy is essentially noticeable in Africa.

 

 Policy, Economy

WATER HUNGER IN CHINA by R.S.Hasiev
Keywords: China, water resources, ecology
Growth of population and rapid development of China’s economy during the last few decades have led to environmental degradation in the country. The shortage of fresh water is nowadays one of the major problems of China. Nearly two- thirds of the 600 large and medium cities of China are experiencing difficulties with water supply, and in 100 of them, the problem is very acute. The author notes that the shortage of water resources will not only slow down the growth of the second economy of the world, but is also fraught with serious social upheaval.

SUDAN. PEACE IN EXCHANGE FOR DIVISION (Part 2) by A.E.Zhukov and S.A.Miftakhova
Keywords: Sudan, South Sudan, conflict, separatism, self- determination, Abyei
On July, 9 2011, the former southern region of the Republic of Sudan proclaimed its independence. This followed a decision to secede taken by the region’s inhabitants at a referendum for self-determination that was held six months earlier. The southerners’ right for self-determination was stipulated by the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) signed in January
2005, which terminated the long-running civil war between forces of the central government and a rebel movement in the South. The CPA set a six-year interim period within which the central government (the Government of National Unity) and the authorities of the semi-autonomous Southern Sudan were to create preconditions for peaceful and harmonious coexistence of the North and the South, based on their equal rights and regardless of the future political status of the latter. At the same time the CPA included the parties’ commitment to make the unity of Sudan attractive to all residents of the South. The present article gives an overview of the CPA and analyzes the process of its implementation. The authors address the question why, judging by the results of the referendum, the idea of unity failed to attract significant number of supporters in the South, despite the six years of opportunity.

AUSTRALIA: PASSIONATE DISPUTE ABOUT TAX ON CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS by Y.A.Voinov
Keywords: Australia, Julia Gillard, ecology
With the rapid growth of the Australian economy the problem of restraining of the «dirty» industries and gradual transition of the Australian economy towards green development has been put on the agenda.
The question of imposing a tax on carbon emissions has become a «frontal line» of confrontation between the Labor Party and the opposition forces, and the main topic in all the media. The author tells the story of the twists and turns of adoption of a new tax.

PROMINENT SCIENTIST, AFRICANIST, DIPLOMAT (on the occasion of the 80th birthday of An.A. Gromyko) by A.M.Vasiliev, Academician, Director of the Institute of African Studies
Anatoly Gromyko - a correspondent-member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, professor and prominent scientist in the field of international relations theory, foreign policy of the USA, the UN role in the world affairs and the complex study of economic problems and problems of foreign policy in the African countries.
Our journal sincerely presents congratulations to An.A. Gromyko on the occasion of the 80th birthday and has a pleasure to offer our readers the article about the main stages of hisoutstanding career and the key subjects of his scientific activity.

 

 Russia and The East

VLAS DOROSHEVICH: “HE EAST IS ORIGINAL” by E.A.Ikonnikova (Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Dr.Sc. (Philology)
Keywords: the East, V.M.Doroshevich, travel, the Russian literature in the early of XXth century
The following article is consisted of two parts. The first part briefly describes the interest of Russian journalist V.M. Doroshevich to the East in the early twentieth century. Also it describes the basic bibliography of the writer on this theme. In the second part of the article there are fragments of the interview with the Belarusian researcher S.V. Bookchin on V.M. Doroshevich’ heritage who answers questions related to the topic of the East in creativity of the author.

 

 Our Interview

V.OVCHINNIKOV: «TOWARDS THE “NORTH” GREAT SILK ROAD» by M.V.Kachevskaya, a TIC-Inform correspondent
Recently the famous Russian writer Vsevolod Ovchinnikov has turned 85 years old. He is the legend of domestic journalism, orientalist, the author of many books, including «Spray of Sakura», loved by all readers, as well the author of our magazine for many years.
On his birthday, the writer shared with a journalist Maria Kachevskaya his thoughts on rebuilding on the basis of the modern technology the Great Silk Road, through which over seventeen hundred years the economic and cultural relations between East and West have been realizing.

 

 Scientific Life

“THE ARAB SPRING” IN THE FOCUS OF ATTENTION by I.O.Abramova, PhD (Economy)
Keywords: Arab revolution, political Islam
In early December 2011 a «round table» has been held at the Institute for African Studies in Moscow on the subject
«The Arab spring: the dialectic of objective and subjective». The author presents the main theses of the orientalists who have participated in the event.

STUDY OF AFRICA IN RUSSIA AND ABROAD by A.S. Balezin Dr.Sc. (History)
Keywords: Africa, African Studies in Russia
The article is devoted to the international conference AFRICAN STUDIES IN RUSSIA AND ABROAD: STAGES, TRENDS, AND PROSPECTS held in Moscow at the Institute of World History, Russian Academy of Sciences, in November
2011. With this conference the Center for African studies of this Institute celebrated its 40th anniversary. The Center was created as the Sector of African history on December 1st, 1971.
Since that time it has been successfully working under the leadership of Prof. Apollon Davidson. The article describes the opening ceremony of the conference and gives summaries of the papers presented at the conference.

 

 Pages of History

WHY AND WHO KILLED THE FIRST PRESIDENT OF ZANZIBAR? by O.I.Teterin, PhD (History)
Keywords: Tanzania, Zanzibar, Amani Karume Abeyd, Nyerere
The article focuses on the causes of the tragic death in 1972 of the first President of Zanzibar Abeid Amani Karume. The author had witnessed the «revolutionary changes» in the island part of the United Republic of Tanzania which took place after an armed coup in January 1964. More over, he closely followed the development of internal political struggle in Zanzibar even before A.A.Karume was killed. By and large the author to certain extent had foreseen this kind of developments. Eyewitnessing is always interesting, and therefore, we believe that many readers of our magazine will take an interest in this publication.

JINNAH’S LOVE STORY by A.A.Suvorova, Dr.Sc. (Philology)
Keywords: Pakistan, Indian Muslims, Parsis, inter- communal marriages
Even today, not much is known about Jinnah’s personal life although a great deal has been written about his vision, politics and his role as a founder of nation. Hardly many Pakistanis know that when he was a law student in London, he regularly did theatre and seriously considered acting as a profession. There are many reasons that not much is known about his life other than politics and Pakistan movement. He wrote little, and what he wrote was formal and a matter of fact. He wrote no autobiography or diary probably because he never had time to do so. He was reserved, taciturn and secretive. Although Prof. Akbar Ahmed’s movie “Jinnah” tried, to some extent, throw some light on Jinnah’s personal life but it is no where near enough. His marriage with the most beautiful girl of Bombay - Ruttie Petit - was like a fairy tale. The article describes in short Jinnah’s love story.

 

 Religion, Beliefs, Cults

ISLAMIZATION, ISLAMISM AND EXTREMISM
INDONESIA. CLUB OF OBEDIENT WIVES by O.A.Kotkina
Keywords: Indonesia, North Aceh, Islam, polygamy, the legal system
The present-day Republic of Indonesia is one of the aspirants to the leading position in the Islamic world. About
90% of its population is Muslim. At the same time Indonesia is a secular state. In this connection the question arises: how do the inhabitants of ‘the country of seventeen thousand islands’ manages to combine these two seemingly contradictory tendencies?
The article examines the efficiency and the possibility of combining the sharia, adat and state legislation in the area of family law in modern Indonesia. In addition, a reference is made to a curious story about an interesting social organization known as ‘The Obedient Wives’ Club’.

SAPEUR’S TRUE COLOURS, OR AFRICAN VESTIMENTARY CODE IN LITERARY DISCOURSE by N.S.Naydenova, PhD (Philology)
Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa, African literature, la sape
La sape, which won huge acclaim in the 1970-1980s in Congo (ex-Zaire) is gaining more and more followers thus forming not only their vestimentary preferences, but also certain mentality and outlook on life. This trend is most evidently demonstrated in the literary works of African writers, whose readership is currently expanding.

 

 Travelings, Meetings, Impresions


HEAVENLY DELIGHT WITH A CHINESE FLAVOR by D.A.Dudenkova
Keywords: China, Xishuangbanna, nationality Dai
There is a saying in China: «Above is heaven, and below - Suzhou and Hangzhou» (the city in the east). And if you are still naive to believe this, then you just have not fortunate enough to visit Xishuangbanna. The author shares his impressions of travel in the tropical paradise of Xishuangbanna in southwest China’s Yunnan Province on the border with Laos and Myanmar.

 

Summary