"Asia and Africa today"
- is a scientificl monthly journal (in Russian)
of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Included in Russian Science Citation Index on
WoS platform, and EBSCO Publishing.
ISSN 0321-5075
Published since July 1957.

 

 "Asia and Africa today" № 8 2010

 

Azia&Afrika 08 2010-s 

 

Present-Day Problem

REGIONAL SECURITY. AFGHANISTAN: NEW STRATEGY AND OLD TROUBLES
Looking for an escape from the Afghan deadlock, Washington is doing its best to formulate and carry out a new strategy that to certain extent resembles the Iraq scenario. Essentially, it is a combination of military and political efforts aimed at gradual transfer of the burden of the war with rebellious Talibs to the central government of Afghanistan.

CARROT AND STICK by Y.M. Rusakov, PhD (History).
Keywords: Afghanistan, new US strategy, Marja
In his December 2009 speech at the US Military Academy at West Point President Obama laid out the three core elements of his Afghan strategy: a military effort to create the conditions for handing over responsibility to the Afghan security forces, including deploying additional US troops and strengthening the capacity of Afghanistan’s security forces; a civilian surge to reinforce good governance; and an effective partnership with Pakistan.
In author’s view, this is a formidable task. But it isn’t hopeless. In fact in the past the tactics of transferring lead responsibility to the Afghan forces was successfully carried out by the Soviet troops in
1985-88 and after their withdrawal President Najibulla held out for another 4 years. Currently, despite many experts’ dire predictions, life in Iraq is more or less recovering. The author also draws attention to the focus of the present US administration on fighting a war against al Qaeda and the US partnership with Pakistan in this war.

A RIDDLE WITH MANY UNKNOWNS by S.Poya.
Keywords: Afghanistan, new US strategy, Karzai, struggle against corruption,
The article stresses the importance of combating corruption. President Karzai declared it as one of his main goals and now is supposed to keep his word on smoking-room election promises. In an attempt to neutralize Washington’s pressure on this issue Karzai accused international community of aggravating the corruption cancer and interfering in Afghanistan’s domestic affairs. The author notes that chances of successful reintegration of rank-and-file Taliban insurgents are rather slim. Even less likely is reconciliation with the leaders of Taliban.

 

WORLD ECONOMY: RESTORATION AND POST-CRISIS DEVELOPMENT

ECONOMY OF AFRICA: CHALLENGES OF POST-CRISIS DEVELOPMENT (PART 1) by L.L.Fituni, Dr.Sc. (Economy).
Keywords: Africa, global crisis, finances, banks, budget deficit
The author is analyzing the damage to the African economy caused by the world financial and economic crisis. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the banking and financial sectors of the African states. The losses that the banks have suffered in these countries could undermine implementation of projects to modernize the African economy.

 

50 YEARS OF “THE YEAR OF AFRICA”

“THE BIG GAME”: CHINA AND AFRICA ON THE AFRICAN RAW MATERIALS MARKET by T.L.Deich. PhD (History).
Keywords: market of raw materials, China’s African policy
China is becoming the main “player” on African raw materials markets. Although it is still behind the U.S. as a consumer of African resources, this gap is constantly closing. The world financial crisis influenced trade flows, but China-Africa trade has continued to grow, partly because it depends on oil and mineral exports to China. In 2009 China overtook US and became the most important Africa’s trade partner. China widely employs the principle - “raw materials in exchange for infrastructure” in its African policy. This policy impels local elite to give preference to China rather than to its competitors.
China’s approach to foreign relations, which is officially termed «noninterference in domestic affairs», has also aided its business successes. Chinese leaders say that unlike the United States, China does not mix business with politics. China’s growing expansion into African raw materials markets provokes concern in the Western capitals. Experts forecast a collision between consumers of African resources, primarily between China and the US, and possibly even a “cold war” over African oil.

WOMEN AND CHILDREN IN CONFLICTS IN AFRICA by O.B.Gromova, PhD (History).
Keywords: ethnopolitical conflicts, violence, women and children in conflicts
The article concerns the issue of ethnopolitical conflicts and civil wars, which a number of African countries experienced in the last century and in the beginning of this century. These conflicts have especially negative effects on lives of the most vulnerable groups - women and children. These two groups make up about 80% of all African refugees.

“THE YEAR OF AFRICA” IN THE RUSSIAN EMIGRANT PRESS by A.V.Antoshin. PhD (History).
Keywords: the Year of Africa, the Russians abroad, emigrant press
Sweeping decolonization of Africa in the late 1950- s and in the beginning of 1960-s drew attention to the Black Continent. Newspapers and magazines of many states have turned their attention to the problems of Africa. The Russian emigrant press hasn’t been an exception. However political and cultural centres of the Russian Diaspora are so far away from Africa, that emigrant authors could not keep an eye on political and social developments in former colonies. Nevertheless an analysis of their reaction to the process of decolonization is of interest for scholars.

 

 Policy, Economy

INDIA: TERROR IN THE NAME OF “SOCIAL JUSTICE” by A.Y.Yakovlev, PhD (History).
Keywords: India, Naksalits, terrorism
The article is devoted to the analysis of evolution of the socio-political movement of Naksalits from the moment of its appearance in West Bengal in the end of
1960-s and till now. Naksalits began their activities under the aegis of the Marxist-Leninist Communist party, but gradually their movement has transformed into a terrorist organization which sows fear in modern India. Unfortunately, poverty and abundance of social and economic problems provide good ground for recruiting supporters of Left-wing radicals and terrorist methods of struggle for «justice».

 

WORLD ECONOMY: RESTORATION AND POST-CRISIS DEVELOPMENT. CHINA

WILL THE YUAN STRENGTHEN? by L.I.Kondrashova, Dr.Sc. (Economy).
Keywords: the People’s Republic of China, world crisis, revaluation of yuan
The article gives an analysis of Chinese manoeuvrings between a «weak» and a «strong» yuan. The US insists on Chinese currency revaluation because it regards undervaluing yuan as a measure to de facto subsidize Chinese exports. The EU as well as India and Brazil have also put increasing pressure on Beijing . Beijing is doing its best to avoid the rise in the prices of exports, which would inevitably lead to exports’ decrease and serious negative consequences for economic development of the country as a whole. Nonetheless, China has agreed to introduce a bit more flexible official exchange rate of yuan.

SOLVING SOCIAL PROBLEMS IN THE PERIOD OF REFORMS AND CRISIS by E.P.Pivovarova, Dr.Sc. (Economy).
Keywords: the People’s Republic of China, world crisis, social problems
The article analyzes the key factors that allow Chinese economy to keep growing a strong pace despite the world financial crisis.

 

 Point of View

GLOOMY CLOUDS OVER THE EAST SEA by G.M.Lokshin, PhD (History).
Keywords: South China Sea, territorial dispute, the
People’s Republic of China, Vietnam, АSЕАN
The International symposium titled “The East Sea: Cooperation for Regional Security and Development” took place in Hanoi. The author pays special attention to the analysis of the increased economic and military power of the People’s Republic of China which strives for a dominating role in Southeast Asia and in the South China Sea. The Chinese aspirations encounter rigid resistance from the countries-members of the ASEAN which have developed their own «method» of interaction with their powerful «northern neighbor» - the method of consultations and patient negotiations.

 

 From Our Own Correspondent

«GREAT SOMALI OFFENSIVE» by A.N.Bragin (from Addis Ababa).
Keywords: Somalia, Islamists, offensive
The article describes the preparations made by the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia before launching a major military offensive aimed at driving radical Islamists opposition groups - al Shabaab and Hizb al Islam - out of the capital city Mogadishu. The article gives a brief characteristic of the current situation in this East African country. The author also offers an analysis of possible developments.

 

 Culture, Literature, Art

CHINESE POET-MODERNIST HAI-ZI by V.V.Tsibikova
Keywords: contemporary Chinese literature, postmodernism, poetry

A new ideology of postmodernism appeared in Chinese literature in the 1980-s owing to the Open policy. One of the most distinguished representatives of postmodernism is poet Hai-zi. In spite of his early death he left a great heritage and influenced the next generation of young poets. The aim of this article is to examine the main moments of the poet’s life and analyze the peculiarities of Hai-zi’s literary works.

«CONSCIENCE WILL ANSWER…» by Yu.I.Noskov.
This is a story of the most famous poet of modern Indonesia - Rendra (1935-2009). His verses have been translated into a number of the European languages. The article includes the first Russian translation of Rendra’s works made by the author.

 

 Travelings, Meetings, Impresions

THE LAND OF TSAR BHARATA by T.A.Gaverdovskaya
Keywords: India, Bharata, culture, saga, philosophy The ancient name of India is Bharata. «India»
means only people living in the valley of the Indus and Ganges rivers while «Bharata» is closely related to the great past of the country.

 

 Book Review

AFRICANS IN AFRICA AND OUTSIDE OF THE CONTINENT by N.I.Petrov.
Review of the scholarly work “Pax Africana. Continent and its Diaspora” published in Moscow in2009.

 

Summary